Yet evaluating popular imperialism in inter-war France
is none the less problematic. The most interesting and frequently
used evidence is representational. It ranges from analyses of
colonial exhibitions, museums and the proliferation of colonial or
colonial-inspired art and literature to the proliferation of
colonial themes in popular cinema and French advertising. 2 The beginnings
European and African narrative writing of the interwar period
Europeans in the first half of the twentieth century?
This chapter takes its point of departure from the
intersection of colonial discourses of development and narrative
writing on Africa in France and Great Britain during the interwar
period. After theoretical and methodological reflections on the
contribution of literature studies to the history of development it
will proceed to
In the midst of the Suez Crisis, cartoonist Pol Ferjac created a series of cartoons for the French humour weekly Le Canard enchaîné with the caption ‘Nil novi’, or ‘Nothing new under the sun’. The message was clear: to western observers, Egyptian President Gamal Abdel Nasser's nationalisation of the Suez Canal was another instance of aggressive expansionism that conjured up memories of Hitler in the 1930s. This slogan would have resonated with Egyptian observers as well, for a very different reason: they saw the western response to the
The importance of cartoons, caricature, and satirical art in imperial
Richard Scully and Andrekos Varnava
Appearing on a weekly basis in magazines like Punch , and its chief rivals of the period – including Fun , Judy , and Moonshine – cartoons were a key means by which British readers encountered and engaged with issues of empire and imperialism. Across the Channel, the immense power of French satirical art also sustained a particular focus on matters imperial (via Le Charivari and its imitators); and in Germany, the cartoonists of Kladderadatsch , Die Fliegende Blätter , and Simplicissimus intervened regularly in the debates over overseas expansion that
the above-mentioned scholarship, which largely consists of diplomatic and commercial histories, there is another relevant body of literature offering cultural investigations of early British–Chinese relations. This field of cultural studies, however, has not previously been brought into dialogue with the former in a sustained manner. Some early publications of this scholarship often do not differentiate clearly between Britain and the West or between China and Asia.
In 1998, a group of Chinese historians published
Hong Kong activist James See (1872–1939), this illustration shows China's foreign invaders as various animals, occupying different regions of China: a bear standing in the northeast stands for Russia; a bulldog bending over the east is Britain; France is represented by a frog in the south; while the USA is depicted in the east coast region in the form of an eagle.
James See 謝纘泰 (attrib.), ‘Shijutu 時局圖
, combined with their publication at regular intervals, provided a serialised forum for imagining the nation. That this process of imagining built on the novelistic forms that appeared in nineteenth-century periodicals’ pages seems almost unavoidable, and yet recognition of the reciprocal influence of these genres has been lopsided. While the impact of the cartoon on the novel has been recognised in analyses as early as Fielding's, and as recently as the current extensive and growing critical literature on the graphic novel, critical attention to the influence of the novel
-war years of imperial decline also raise important questions about Britain's imperial experience. In 1996 Bill Schwarz published a rallying call, pointing out that conventional histories of decolonisation presented a ‘stunning lack of curiosity’ about its impact within ‘the heartland of England itself’. 8 In the two decades since, scholars have mounted a persuasive challenge to the ‘minimal impact thesis’, focusing on representations of empire in political discourse and cultural productions (including satire, children's popular literature, commercial films, travel
The iconography of Anglo-American inter-imperialism
Mouthful to Swallow’ as the lion is unable to approach Paul Kruger in the guise of a bayonet-covered South African porcupine.
Likewise, as he extinguishes (rather painfully) the flames of a South African camp fire, Britain's ‘friendly foes’ (Russia and France; armed with coal-pincers) wait to pick through the ashes of the over-stretched British Empire ( Figure 4.5 ).
, epitomised in stereotypical representatives of national character like German Fritz or John Bull, or emblematised in birds and animals drawn from heraldry and beast-fable and engaged in Aesopian encounters (the British Lion, the Indian Tiger, and the French Poodle).
These various iconographic systems could, moreover, be deployed in dramatic scenarios which alluded – either textually or pictorially – to the kinds of reading with which their audiences might be assumed to be familiar: with allusions to Shakespeare, to