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Covert racism and affect in the United States post-9/11

‘I am the least racist person,’ Donald Trump declared. This book unpacks how it is possible for various American administrations to impose discriminatory counterterrorism (CT) and countering violent extremism (CVE) measures on Muslim communities and yet declare that ‘Islam is peace’ or that ‘Muslims are our friends’. The book addresses some of the paradoxes of the securitisation by linking discourses about the role of Muslims in the war on terror in the United States with covert forms of racism. The book is concerned with a securitisation that is covertly rather than overtly expressed, which enables securitising actors like Trump to deny plausibility of racism and claim that they are ‘the least racist person’. The book offers a critique of the ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ approaches to CT and CVE and advances an alternative way to understand radicalisation and terrorism by introducing a quantum perspective. Lastly, drawing on the affective turn, the book adds body to the analysis by theorising emotions and affect in the securitisation of Islam. The book argues that this covert securitisation constructs white American subjects as innocent, unprejudiced and living in a post-racial society averse to racism, whilst constructing Muslim subjects as potential terrorists and thus as sites of securitisation. This book is a timely analysis of the securitisation of Islam since 9/11 and presents an original study that contributes to debates on Islamophobia, white fragility and white victimhood, which have proliferated since the rise of far-right (populist) parties in Europe and the US.

This book is the fruit of twenty years’ reflection on Islamic charities, both in practical terms and as a key to understand the crisis in contemporary Islam. On the one hand Islam is undervalued as a global moral and political force whose admirable qualities are exemplified in its strong tradition of charitable giving. On the other hand, it suffers from a crisis of authority that cannot be blamed entirely on the history of colonialism and stigmatization to which Muslims have undoubtedly been subjected – most recently, as a result of the "war on terror". The book consists of seventeen previously published chapters, with a general Introduction and new prefatory material for each chapter. The first nine chapters review the current situation of Islamic charities from many different viewpoints – theological, historical, diplomatic, legal, sociological and ethnographic – with first-hand data from the United States, Britain, Israel–Palestine, Mali and Indonesia. Chapters 10 to 17 expand the coverage to explore the potential for a twenty-first century "Islamic humanism" that would be devised by Muslims in the light of the human sciences and institutionalized throughout the Muslim world. This means addressing contentious topics such as religious toleration and the meaning of jihad. The intended readership includes academics and students at all levels, professionals concerned with aid and development, and all who have an interest in the future of Islam.

not claim that Islam is a threat, in the same way using the word ‘hope’ prevented Trump from being accused of curtailing the Flynn investigation. This chapter offers an innovative twist to securitisation theory by introducing the notion of indirect securitising speech acts. It also speaks to everyday racism by exploring indirect securitising language – here, of minorities – as a type of everyday racism that is covert. This is an important task, for indirect securitisation and hate speech can go on unabated and unpunished because actors who

in The securitisation of Islam

This review of Amelia Fauzia’s Faith and the State: A history of Islamic philanthropy in Indonesia (Brill, 2013) was originally published in the Asian Journal of Social Science 42: 1–2 (2014), 165–7. An angle for comparative historical research is proposed here. To what extent did Christian institutions affect the

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times

This review of Michael Cook’s Ancient Religions, Modern Politics: The Islamic case in comparative perspective (Princeton University Press, 2014) and Akeel Bilgrami’s Secularism, Identity, and Enchantment (Harvard University Press, 2014) was published in the Times Literary Supplement on 10 September 2014 under the heading ‘What

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times

Chapter 1 unpacked the methodological tools to examine the securitisation of Islam post-9/11 in the US context and explored, broadly speaking, the question of language in the constitution of reality, which paved the way for applying these insights in securitisation studies. Chapter 2 examines securitisation theory from the perspective of the CS. Instead of viewing threats as objective, security from the CS perspective becomes a self-referential practice because the issue is presented as such by an elite (Buzan et

in The securitisation of Islam

As noted in the Introduction, there is a small research literature on the question of ‘cultural proximity’. My own attempts to explore it – based on field visits to Mali and Aceh – have partly confirmed the thesis that Islamic NGOs can, on occasion, benefit from a privileged relationship with beneficiaries in Muslim countries

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times

This personal account of the Swiss government funded mediation or conflict resolution project (2005–13) was first published in Gulf Charities and Islamic Philanthropy in the ‘Age of Terror’ and Beyond , edited by Robert Lacey and myself (Gerlach Press, 2014). Special attention is given here to the Gulf

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times

Pennsylvania, 2014). My contribution appeared as the opening chapter in a volume published later that year, Understanding Islamic Charities , edited by Jon B. Alterman and Karin von Hippel. It is an overview which I still stand by in 2015 despite all the geopolitical changes since 2007. A theme that occurs elsewhere in this book is the unsatisfactory state of academic

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times
The case of post-tsunami reconstruction in Aceh

was extended in September 2014, amid sharp controversy. The main motivation for the article (first published in the online Journal of Humanitarian Assistance ), based on a visit in 2007, was to explore what special contributions Islamic charities can make in majority Muslim countries. As in the case of Mali, the finding was guardedly positive. An

in Islamic charities and Islamic humanism in troubled times