How can a medical humanitarian organisation deliver emergency assistance in Syria
when there is nowhere in the country where civilians, the wounded and their
families, medical personnel and aid workers are not targeted? Not in the areas
controlled by the government, nor in those held by the Kurdish Democratic Union
Party (PYD), Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL) or the different rebel
groups. So what action could be taken
the Islamic State (IS)
in 2014, did not prevent their execution. On the contrary, the silence of their
organisation and the media may have bolstered the jihadist movement’s
claim that they were spies, while enabling the British government to maintain,
unchallenged, its intransigent no-negotiations policy ( Dettmer, 2014 ; Simon, 2014 ).
In other words, while controlling information shared internally and with the
public is one of the key factors in
September , http://news.gallup.com/poll/195542/americans-trust-mass-media-sinks-new-low.aspx
(accessed 9 June 2018) .
A. ( 2018 ),
‘ A Brief History of Iranian Fake News: How Disinformation Campaigns
Shaped the Islamic Republic ’, Foreign Affairs ,
24 August , www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/middle-east/2018-08-24/brief-history-iranian-fake-news
(accessed September 28, 2018) .
Tandoc , E. ,
Lim , Z. W. and
R. ( 2018 ),
‘ Defining “Fake News
establishing a World Bank Trust Fund for UNRWA, a waqf endowment
fund in support of Palestinian refugees managed by the Islamic Development Bank, and (now in
place) an endowment fund proposed by the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation.
In the context of the long-standing financial deficit, although UNRWA has continued to provide
‘relief and works’, the actual services provided have been reduced and the groups
of Palestinian refugees entitled to receive UNRWA services have constantly shrunk over time.
With a current total registered refugee
increasing number of health professionals fleeing the country. This has left populations with limited access to healthcare leading to increased vulnerability to communicable and non-communicable diseases.
Since the defeat of the Islamic State in 2018, there have been three distinctive territories in Syria corresponding to the different areas of control. About 60 per cent of the Syrian territories, including the capital Damascus and most central and southern areas, are controlled by the Assad regime. Kurdish armed groups, supported by the United States, control around 25