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waged in the name of jihad. The most prominent groups waging insurgencies and using terrorism have fundamentalist religious ideologies and associations (current or former) with al Qaeda. These include the Islamic State (ISIL), the Pakistani Taliban and their allies, Afghanistan’s Taliban, Nigeria’s Boko Haram, Somalia’s al Shabaab, and al Qaeda, along with its other franchises and affiliates. Several of these groups have managed to seize significant territory, including major cities, such as ISIL’s capture of Mosul in northern Iraq, not far from the Syrian and Turkish

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare

, in many cases forcefully converting them to Islam or making them serve as sex slaves, or both. The group continues to send suicide bombers on missions to destroy various government targets. Over TERRORISM AS A TACTIC OF WIDER-SCALE WARFARE 153 this same span of time, Boko Haram has also conquered territory, proclaimed a caliphate on the land under its control and proceeded to behead fellow Nigerians whom these jihadists believe have seriously violated Sharia law. The situation in Afghanistan, though hardly identical, is similar. Although alQaeda Central is no

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Insurgents’ use of terrorism at the initial stages of conflict

cases of insurgencies stirring in the absence of wider-scale warfare are found in places where one might expect the conditions to be quite different from those in the West, including locations in Sub-Saharan Africa, the Middle East, and South Asia. The picture seems to have changed considerably since 2010. More recently, there is evidence of new conflicts and increasing violence in at least some of these places (e.g., Bangladesh, Libya, Saudi Arabia, and Yemen) where insurgents surfaced years prior to the beginning of this new era of warfare. Islamic extremism seems

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
The weapon of the weakest?

advice for the development of a post-Qaddafi Libyan state.30 What appears to be the relatively recent arrival of ISIL to Libya may challenge the positions of these groups, including Ansar al-Sharia.31 Volunteers from Libya have recently made their way to the Islamic State (ISIL) and now participate in its struggles to establish a new caliphate.32 ISIL has sought land, formed alliances, made enemies, and carried out attacks, including executions, on soil that would be Libyan were there a Libyan state to exert control over it.33 ISIL’s movement into Libya seems more like

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare

pattern are al Qaeda’s various affiliates, ISIL (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant), and the myriad nationalist and religious groups competing for power within some of the weakest states in Asia and Africa. Defining key terms Before the discussion proceeds, it is appropriate to offer definitions and outline the meanings of the terms used throughout this analysis. It will not be surprising to readers that the terms to which we refer remain highly contested. There is no true consensus definition for terms such as “terrorism.” Nor, when it comes to applying a

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Data and measurement

. These current operators – among them the Islamic State and al Qaeda, as well as Syria’s al-Nusra Front, Nigeria’s Boko Haram, Somalia’s al Shabaab, China’s Uighur minority, Colombia’s FARC, Afghanistan and Pakistan’s Talibans, and India and Pakistan’s Kashmiri separatists, to name just a few – are also of broader contemporary interest in the study of terrorism, political violence, and warfare in the twenty-first century.51 Boot’s data goes as far back as 1775, to the time when America’s colonists engaged in insurgency against Britain’s regular military force in the

in The role of terrorism in twenty-first-century warfare
Open Access (free)
The management of migration between care and control

the following major attacks in 2016 that have taken place in Brussels and Nice. 4 Moreover, propaganda declaring war on Rome was released by the established presence of Islamic State affiliates on Libya’s coast, and the potential threats that terrorists could take control of migration networks were disseminated. 5 These events have increased the perception of the Mediterranean as Europe

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Grassroots exceptionalism in humanitarian memoir

that was disappearing in the developing world as fast as old-growth forests’ (120). Such statements help the book frame its mission to a liberal audience eager to sympathise with a non-threatening Islamic ‘other’. By aiding a people who are seen to maintain a pre-modern worldview and (unlike al Qaeda) are not technologically sophisticated, donating to CAI can be embraced as a peaceful, non

in Global humanitarianism and media culture
Cinema, news media and perception management of the Gaza conflicts

is simply ‘responding’. A huge part of Israel’s perception management during the 2014 conflict was to conflate Hamas with the global threat of radical Islam, whilst presenting Israel as part of the democratic world from which Hamas is excluded, although Hamas itself was democratically elected. As John Berger remarks in another context, a sure-fire way to discredit and eradicate your opposition is ‘by calling

in Global humanitarianism and media culture