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A dialogue with Islam as a pattern of conflict resolution and a security approach vis-à-vis Islamism

I N THE CONTEXT of broadening the scope of international relations (IR) and of the related field of security studies in light of the changed international system after the end of the Cold War, Islam and Islamic movements have moved to the fore of this discipline. At the surface it looks as if the study of the ‘geopolitics of Islam and the West’ has taken the place

in Redefining security in the Middle East
A veiled threat

I N THE MIDDLE East, security is strongly influenced by politicized forms of fundamental belief systems. This chapter examines the dual role of political Islam, with specific focus on Palestine and the case of Hamas , the Islamic Resistance Movement, in the West Bank and Gaza. In this context, political Islam represents a general rejection of the Arab

in Redefining security in the Middle East

For over five decades, the Cold War security agenda was distinguished by the principal strategic balance, that of a structure of bipolarity, between the United States (US) and the Soviet Union (USSR). This book seeks to draw from current developments in critical security studies in order to establish a new framework of inquiry for security in the Middle East. It addresses the need to redefine security in the Middle East. The focus is squarely on the Arab-Israeli context in general, and the Palestinian-Israeli context in particular. The character of Arab-Israeli relations are measured by the Israeli foreign policy debate from the 1950s to the 1990s. A dialogue between Islam and Islamism as a means to broaden the terrain on which conflict resolution and post-bipolar security in the Middle East is to be understood is presented. The Middle East peace process (MEPP) was an additional factor in problematizing the military-strategic concept of security in the Middle East. The shift in analysis from national security to human security reflects the transformations of the post-Cold War era by combining military with non-military concerns such as environmental damage, social unrest, economic mismanagement, cultural conflict, gender inequity and radical fundamentalism. By way of contrast to realist international relations (IR) theory, developing-world theorists have proposed a different set of variables to explain the unique challenges facing developing states. Finally, the book examines the significance of ecopolitics in security agendas in the Middle East.

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Redefining security in the Middle East

lens on the Arab–Israeli conflict suggests that a fully consolidated peace agreement will follow only the waning of militarism and the waxing of moderation as the dominant Israeli doctrine guiding both Israel’s position in the peace process and the establishing of national and personal security within Israel. Chapter 4 , by Bassam Tibi, undertakes a dialogue between Islam and Islamism as a means to

in Redefining security in the Middle East

diluted by, outlandish and unconnected topics. For instance, the ‘Conspiracy Theories and Misinformation’ web feature published in 2009 included two topic headings – ‘September 11’ and ‘US and Islam’ – that were directly related to the War on Terror (see Figure 1 ). But they appeared alongside the topic headings ‘Health’, ‘Military’, ‘Outer Space

in Conspiracy theory and American foreign policy
Israel and a Palestinian state

consisting predominantly of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) and the Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) ( Shikaki, 1998 : 30–1). A second source of opposition to the regime consists of radical Islamists, primarily Hamas and Islamic Jihad , which also challenge its secularism and offer a competing set of legitimacy principles based upon Islamic precepts. 16 A

in Redefining security in the Middle East
The role(s) of the military in Southeast Asia

these tensions is that, throughout the Cold War, the focus of security in the region was drawn to state sovereignty and territory rather than human security concerns. The third principal threat that concerns the region’s security analysts comes from terrorism, radical Islam and secessionist movements. Virtually every state in the region, with the possible exception of Singapore

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific

involvement. Second, the US commitment to confronting the terrorist threat posed by Al-Qaeda and associated fundamentalist Islamic terrorist organizations in the region (such as Jemaah Islamiah (JI), responsible for the 2002 terrorist bombings on the Indonesian island of Bali) involved an increase in the American military presence in the region, particularly in the Philippines

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific

looked towards the impact of American foreign policy in the Middle East and thought about Al-Qaeda in this context. It emphasised the involvement of the CIA in a covert war against the Russian occupation of Afghanistan in the mid-1980s, which mobilised, supplied and trained the very Islamic mujahideen that would later turn against America in the post-Cold War years. It also noted the

in Conspiracy theory and American foreign policy
Security and insecurity in Indonesian Aceh and Papua

control dissent. To justify the security approach, the army’s leaders had long talked about ‘latent’ threats that endangered the nation. Such threats include, above all, communism or the ‘extreme left’, an ‘extreme right’ (which mostly referred to Muslims who, in the regime’s eyes, wanted to establish an Islamic state) and various other maladies including liberalism

in Critical Security in the Asia-Pacific