endorsement. The Maginot Line,
the French army and France’s empire and allies were frequent stars of
filmsand newsreels during the 1930s.8 But official thinking perceived
the air threat too. Instruction manuals issued by the Défense Passive (see
Figure 1) illustrated the obstacles enemy planes would face before they
reached their targets: detected by look-out and listening posts, French
fighter planes would intercept them, batteries of anti-aircraft fire would
fire and mobile barrage balloons would shield civilians.9 Défense passive
was the name given to civil defence
were transferred to Butare hospital after being given first aid by
peacekeepers, while hundreds of wounded received no medical care at all.
Zambian and Australian peacekeepers present at the scene counted an
estimated 4,050 dead. They said that they had still not finished
counting all the bodies on the hill by the end of the day on 22 April.
Australian film director, George Gittoes, who