endorsement. The Maginot Line,
the French army and France’s empire and allies were frequent stars of
filmsand newsreels during the 1930s.8 But official thinking perceived
the air threat too. Instruction manuals issued by the Défense Passive (see
Figure 1) illustrated the obstacles enemy planes would face before they
reached their targets: detected by look-out and listening posts, French
fighter planes would intercept them, batteries of anti-aircraft fire would
fire and mobile barrage balloons would shield civilians.9 Défense passive
was the name given to civil defence
: Scarecrow Press, 1997). V. Calzolari-Bouvier, ‘L’American Committee for Armenian and Syrian Relief et l’instrumentalisation du témoignage d’Aurora Mardiganian (1918–1919)’, Relations internationales 171:3 (2017), 17–30. M. Tusan situates the Mardiganian’s case in the wider history of humanitarian film during and after the First World War, ‘Genocide, Refugees and Famine on Film: Humanitarianism and the First World War’, Past and Present 237:1 (2017), 197–235.
11 On humanitarian representations, especially photography, H. Fehrenbach and D. Rodogno (eds
The challenges of compassion and the Australian humanitarian campaigns for Armenian relief, 1900–30
form of campaigning that aimed to expose the world to the experience of Armenian refugees was the screening of The Auction of Souls , which included an Armenian young woman herself, Aurora Mardiganian, who took the lead part in the film representing her own life. While the Golden Rule movement encouraged identification with Armenian refugees in general, a focus on one Armenian woman who endured sexual violence and torture served as an emblem of Armenian suffering. 37 The film was shown in Sydney, at the Town Hall, in January 1920 for a fortnight to crowded
were transferred to Butare hospital after being given first aid by
peacekeepers, while hundreds of wounded received no medical care at all.
Zambian and Australian peacekeepers present at the scene counted an
estimated 4,050 dead. They said that they had still not finished
counting all the bodies on the hill by the end of the day on 22 April.
Australian film director, George Gittoes, who