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1977 FRELIMO’s cultural policy borrowed substantially (but not exclusively) from Mao’s, I go on to consider, through a focus on Craveirinha’s practice, how visual artists experienced these parameters. China and FRELIMO Following the 1955 Afro-Asia Conference in Bandung, China had become keen to develop ties in Africa, largely in competition with both the US and, after the Sino-Soviet split, the Soviet Union. Zhou Enlai had visited ten African countries in 1963–64, promising economic, technical and military support to newly independent nations and liberation movements

in Art, Global Maoism and the Chinese Cultural Revolution

excitement, and consequently the matter of emigration has fallen very far into the background’, reported W. W. Cory, Canada’s Deputy Minister of the Interior in August 1914. 2 W. D. Scott, Superintendent of Immigration in Ottawa agreed. Policy discussions had been ‘totally eclipsed by the war’. Conditions were so ‘abnormal’, he explained, that ‘I scarcely know what to recommend’. 3 The Colonial Office

in Unfit for heroes
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Writing queer feminist transnational South Asian art histories

’ has several connotations, here it refers to the act of walking or driving in specific pursuit of a partner, in this case for women. 125 Rajinder Kumar Dudrah, ‘Birmingham (UK): Constructing City Spaces through Black Popular Cultures and the Black Public Sphere’, City: Analysis of Urban Trends, Culture, Theory, Policy, Action 6, no. 3 (2002): 343. 126 Butt, ‘Manchester Police Prepare for Double Celebration’. 127 Ibid. 128 ‘Khan Appeals for Trouble-Free Eid’, BBC, 2 November 2005, sec. Manchester, http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/manchester/4401138.stm

in Productive failure
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Producing art, producing art history

/an-industrial-city-s-architecturalrebirth-new-museums-brighten-manchester.html. The Lowry was even cited as ‘The British Building of the Year’ in 2000 by The Royal Fine Art Commission Trust, ahead of London’s Tate Modern, also completed that year. 40 Head of economic and urban policy, ‘Manchester: Knowledge Capital, Innovation Nation’ (Manchester: Manchester City Council, 10 December 2008), www.manchester.gov.uk/egov_downloads/6_%28MKC%29.pdf. 41 Cornerhouse in 2012 merged with the Library Theatre Company to become ‘HOME’. See: http://homemcr.org/about/. 42 John Hyatt, ‘Avenue of the Giants: A Public Art Strategy for Manchester Oxford Road

in Productive failure

: the structural power of binary thinking must be recognised in order for it to be challenged. In addition, with respect to transcultural relations, it is just as important to be attentive to connections and similarities as to differences and disjunction. For more than a thousand years, travel and trade, colonialism and warfare have connected European cultures to the Middle East, Africa, the Americas, Asia and beyond, so it will always be difficult, if not impossible, to make clear-cut distinctions between cultures. In addition, ‘Western’ liberalism and individualism

in Migration into art

’. As Cubitt concluded, ‘the nature of the art institutions has changed over these years, and the critique must evolve with it’.34 Far beyond the Third Text circle, the focus of the critique has shifted away from the institutional mechanisms of exclusion towards the ambiguous strategy of inclusion and the ‘integrationist discourse’ developed by Western art institutions,35 especially in countries such as the US and the UK, Canada and Australia, where many cultural institutions have embraced multiculturalism as a policy. According to some critics, institutional

in Migration into art
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Belonging

States; of Jean Charles de Menezes, an electrician originally from Brazil living in London, as a ‘terrorist’ after 7 July 2005 or ‘7/7’ in the UK; and of teenager Trayvon Martin as a ‘criminal’ in Sanford, Florida, on 6 February 2012 in the United States.1 I hone in on ‘affect’ to examine the complex manner in which visual identification – or misidentification in these cases – takes place and thereby connects these disparate events. ‘Affect’, roughly, refers to feeling before cognition.2 To define it more specifically I draw on several theoretical models that mobilize

in Productive failure
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Towards creolizing transnational South Asian art histories

between Portugal, Brazil and Africa.17 In connection to a ‘Brown Atlantic’, Gopinath writes, ‘Such a mapping of South Asian diasporic movement suggests the differences and similarities between the experiences of racialization of South Asian immigrations in North America and the UK.’18 The ‘Brown Atlantic’ could refer to a broad range of nations beyond the latter, such as Pakistan and the Caribbean (Jamaica, Trinidad, Tobago and Guyana) as well as former British colonies such as Fiji, South Africa and Mauritius to which South Asians migrated in the late nineteenth and

in Productive failure
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Anish Kapoor as British/Asian/artist

indicating that he believed in only the ‘premises, not the details of the curation’.13 More specifically, the inclusion of artworks by Western-based artists from diasporic communities in Magiciens was minimal. Of the five artists of South Asian descent in the exhibition, only one – Pakistanborn, UK-based artist Rasheed Araeen – did not live and work on the subcontinent. The design of the exhibition catalogue itself recalled the oversized format of an atlas, with the list of artists in the table of contents titled, tellingly, ‘Atlas des 100 artistes exposés’.14 Each artist

in Productive failure
From the 1960s to the 1990s

institutional change and affected attitudes towards practice. By the late 1960s conceptualism and rights movements overlapped in protesting the institutional framework of art, with manifold opinions, attitudes, ideologies, and agendas exchanged through a proliferation of collective activities reflecting both friction and mutual influences. One of the first events, organised in 1968 by a group of African-American artists and critics, was a protest at the Whitney Museum’s failure to include black artists in their exhibition The 1930s: Painting and Sculpture in America.6 Soon

in The synthetic proposition