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cultural force. It also examines how programmes created for West Indian audiences changed foci, and began to offer varied, personal perspectives on life for African-Caribbean immigrants. Whilst this portion of the study does not seek to research exhaustively the BBC’s influence within the Caribbean, it does attempt to provide a framework for how broadcast policies from radio, and onward to television, engaged the presence of African-Caribbean subjects. West-Indian-themed programmes broadcast from 1941 until 1945 also provided platforms for rallying cries during World War

in Paving the empire road
The Last King of Scotland and post-imperial Scottish cinema

investment from Scottish Screen (approximately £350,000 or 7 per cent of the overall budget [Scottish Screen, 2006, p. 2]) was, according to Calderwood, instrumental in protecting the Scottish content of the film in light of pressures to make a ‘more studio-type film’. Tatfilm was engaged to provide equipment as well as postproduction services, but the reasons behind the co-production also included ensuring that the film would qualify as British under UK policy guidelines (Calderwood, 2012). Though seemingly small and from a creative point of view inconsequential, this

in Scottish cinema
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number of films annually is, in the African context, quite remarkable. This situation can be traced back to 1970 when the country’s film theatres were nationalised. Borrowing from French policies for the development of its cinema, the Burkinabe government placed a tax upon all film tickets with the revenues being ploughed back into filmmaking by indigenous directors. This did not change the country’s cinematic culture

in Postcolonial African cinema
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relations and colour prejudice. Beginning in the 1930s and into the twenty-first century, I provide a historical analysis of policies invoked and practices undertaken as the Service attempted to assist White Britons in understanding the impact of African-Caribbeans, and their assimilation into constructs of Britishness. Management soon approved talks and scientific studies as a means of examining racial tensions, though not in Britain itself.14 As ITV challenged the discourses of British broadcasting, and BBC2 began broadcasting in 1964, more issues of racial relations

in Paving the empire road

helped ‘them move further into the mainstream’. Alby stated that ‘screaming at the BBC or Channel 4 or anybody else’ would not help.14 In 1998, the possibility for further opportunities to create film and programming began with the launch of a cable and satellite TV channel targeted specifically at the African-Caribbean community. The ITC had granted the African Broadcasting Corporation a licence to launch the African Broadcasting Corporation (ABC TV), a channel dedicated to African-Caribbean culture and the contributions made within the UK. Director of the channel, A

in Paving the empire road
Gandhi (1982), A Chorus Line (1985) and Cry Freedom (1987)

attenborough The story of the Indian Hindu leader, Mohandas K. Gandhi, who played a major role in the country’s independence, freeing India of British colonial rule, was a complex topic for a cinema biography. Gandhi studied law in London before practising as a barrister in Bombay, moving to South Africa in 1907 where he began his policy of passive resistance against the government’s racist policies towards Indians. In 1915 he returned to India and became leader of the Congress movement. Gandhi was imprisoned on several occasions for his political stance and also resorted to

in Richard Attenborough
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London’s sonic space

Goldberg’s comparative analysis of the forms of spatial segregation that produced race in apartheid South Africa and the segregated American city (2004). In each case, Goldberg argues, racial ideology is produced and reinforced through a variety of spatial policies both judicial, like the passbook laws under apartheid, or ­extra-judicial, like urban zoning policies and spatialised policing, which often draws its power from the ‘discretionary’ power of police officers, security guards or club bouncers. In each case the effect of racial power geometry is to contain

in It’s a London thing
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The MU in the twenty-first century

British venues) and internationally (in its opposition to the apartheid regime in South Africa). 242 242 Players’ work time Domestically, the Union’s policies against racial discrimination were tested by the existence of ‘colour bars’24 in various venues that engaged MU members. John Morton (2014) stressed that the context here was that ‘race discrimination was neither illegal nor generally objected to’ in the UK at the time, thus making the MU’s stance all the more laudable. Matters came to a head with the opening of the Scala Ballroom in Wolverhampton in 1958 and

in Players’ work time
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broadcasting has been more overtly commercial in its frameworks and imperatives and, as Timothy Havens reminds us, increasingly seeks revenues abroad, including for the circulation of particular kinds of popular versions of African American ‘blackness’. From its deep origins and first principles to its current reviews and repositioning, the public purposes that have underpinned UK PSB have been a major source of fascination beyond national boundaries. American scholars have, for example, long deconstructed and questioned the onus of public service undertaken by the BBC

in Adjusting the contrast
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, Americanisation and its effect upon the Black Briton’s selfimage are still prominent within mediated texts, shunting positive Black portrayals and consequent fandom toward African-Americans like Oprah Winfrey or Bill Cosby, and away from Black British talent. As a means of exploring the opinions and interpretations of Black British media professionals, interviewed were ten participants involved directly or indirectly with media production or criticism between 1993 and 2010 in the UK and the USA. Black as defined to these participants fell within the same definitive framework as

in Paving the empire road