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Bussing, race and urban space, 1960s–80s

In 1960–62, a large number of white autochthonous parents in Southall became very concerned that the sudden influx of largely non-Anglophone Indian immigrant children in local schools would hold back their children’s education. It was primarily to placate such fears that ‘dispersal’ (or ‘bussing’) was introduced in areas such as Southall and Bradford, as well as to promote the integration of mostly Asian children. It consisted in sending busloads of immigrant children to predominantly white suburban schools, in an effort to ‘spread the burden’. This form of social engineering went on until the early 1980s. This book, by mobilising local and national archival material as well as interviews with formerly bussed pupils in the 1960s and 1970s, reveals the extent to which dispersal was a flawed policy, mostly because thousands of Asian pupils were faced with racist bullying on the playgrounds of Ealing, Bradford, etc. It also investigates the debate around dispersal and the integration of immigrant children, e.g. by analysing the way some Local Education Authorities (Birmingham, London) refused to introduce bussing. It studies the various forms that dispersal took in the dozen or so LEAs where it operated. Finally, it studies local mobilisations against dispersal by ethnic associations and individuals. It provides an analysis of debates around ‘ghetto schools’, ‘integration’, ‘separation’, ‘segregation’ where quite often the US serves as a cognitive map to make sense of the English situation.

Britain, France and the Rhodesian problem, 1965–1969

’ (McNeill and McNeill 2003: 3) between ideas, people and practices, across broad spatial and temporal boundaries, we will discuss the connections which existed between France’s involvement in Rhodesia and its policies in Francophone Black Africa. By assessing not only the impact of French participation on the end of British rule in Africa, but also the ways in which France’s own experiences of empire influenced its engagement in Rhodesia, this article will connect hitherto separated geographies, chronologies and archives, and provide a unique, transnational approach to

in Francophone Africa at fifty
A conceptual history 1200–1900

This collection explores how concepts of intellectual or learning disability evolved from a range of influences, gradually developing from earlier and decidedly distinct concepts, including ‘idiocy’ and ‘folly’, which were themselves generated by very specific social and intellectual environments. With essays extending across legal, educational, literary, religious, philosophical, and psychiatric histories, this collection maintains a rigorous distinction between historical and contemporary concepts in demonstrating how intellectual disability and related notions were products of the prevailing social, cultural, and intellectual environments in which they took form, and themselves performed important functions within these environments. Focusing on British and European material from the middle ages to the late nineteenth century, this collection asks ‘How and why did these concepts form?’ ‘How did they connect with one another?’ and ‘What historical circumstances contributed to building these connections?’ While the emphasis is on conceptual history or a history of ideas, these essays also address the consequences of these defining forces for the people who found themselves enclosed by the shifting definitional field.

at all. Elder Dempster, however, was not satisfied to allow mental patients returning home to travel entirely on their own recognisance. Although Elder Dempster had been repatriating mental patients from the UK and in between British West African territories since the early twentieth century, there does not seem to have been a particular policy in place for such repatriations until after the Second

in Beyond the state
Abstract only
African objects, West African trade and a Liverpool museum

instead acquire ‘the normal and average’, while the fourth edition of the famous primer Notes and Queries on Anthropology made the same point. 41 By 1900, museum curators were no longer looking for ‘curiosities’ but rather sourced artefacts that represented ‘authentic’ African culture: early collecting based on intuition, curiosity and aesthetic wonder was replaced by systematic collecting policies

in The empire in one city?

development and colonial administration in British Africa during the Second World War. In particular, it demonstrates the expatriate business community’s disaffection with the British record of economic development and a complete lack of faith in the Colonial Office’s ability to forge development policy without the aid of the business community. These essays made numerous proposals

in Developing Africa
The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa

representing the state locally were changeable. What was considered in one decade to be fitting to the times was evidently thought not to be appropriate in another. As such, this contribution to the history of Indians in the East African Colonial Medical Service highlights the way that colonial staffing policies were shaped by factors that went beyond the organisational effectiveness or the practical

in Beyond the state

he was tired of not being paid by that financially strapped institution, or possibly, as the historian Penny Von Eschen suggests, because African-American editors lured by Truman’s promise of fairer treatment in the United States preferred a less combative stance towards American policy abroad. Whatever the reason for Padmore’s break with the ANP, it had a ‘devastating impact on [ANP] news coverage

in Ending British rule in Africa
John Holt & Co. (Liverpool) Ltd as a contemporary free-standing company, 1945–2006

government did not show any interest in socialist measures, no longer sourced the majority of its imports from the UK. Holt’s attempts to reposition its operations in West Africa in response to the economic and political changes during decolonisation were overseen by members of the founding families, although the company went public as early as 1950. However, the majority of its shares were still held by

in The empire in one city?
Abolition from ship to shore

This study provides fresh perspectives on critical aspects of the British Royal Navy’s suppression of the Atlantic slave trade. It is divided into three sections. The first, Policies, presents a new interpretation of the political framework under which slave-trade suppression was executed. Part II, Practices, examines details of the work of the navy’s West Africa Squadron

in The suppression of the Atlantic slave trade