associated the title of the
song with Bush’s foreign policy, equating ‘Let the dogs out’ with ‘Let slip the dogs of
war’, in Marc Antony’s speech in Shakespeare’s ‘Julius Caesar’, www.phrases.org.uk/
bulletin_board/49/messages/1123.html, accessed 25/1/12.
39 For example, the debates as to whether ancient Egypt was Grecian, African or Arabic,
and today whether it is part of the Arabic or African world.
African Renaissance and the ‘rainbow nation’
cult it is to separate histories and mythologies from local contemporary
politics, as we see in the way the Timbuktu
some place far away
from London – in New Zealand or Australia, in South Africa or Canada or
Both readers and writers of the popular romance were necessarily
implicated in the transition from empire to Commonwealth in the aftermath
of the second world war; many lived and worked in what had become
the former British colonies and the Commonwealth countries represented
a significant market for romance fiction. These novels were read by
thousands throughout Britain and across the world, and can be understood
as a constituent element in a postwar colonial
, head of the Schools
Broadcasting Unit in Nigeria, says in a report on broadcasting
developments during this period:
In 1949 the desire to take speedy counter measures against
Communism provided a powerful, immediate inducement
to enhance UK funds specifically for broadcasting developments. In the background was the rising tide of new forces
in Africa – the new ‘Africanism’ described by Lord Hailey
in his revised African Survey of 1956; but perhaps more
realistically labelled ‘African Nationalism’ by Thomas
Hodgkin whose ear was sympathetically tuned to the
are in part responses to popular concerns about the state of
education, it is significant that Braddon and Collins were writing these
novels at a time when scientific theories and social policies were tending
towards more deterministic, less optimistic conceptions of heredity, and
beginning to consider eugenics as the means of halting social degeneration. Both authors are asserting the ability and responsibility of society
to raise good citizens, and are to at least some extent buffering the individual from blame. Reading the novels collectively, there is also an
as ‘fir[ing] bullets at the
Milky Way’ (1992: 7).
In today’s France, divided by racism, and increasingly paranoid
about the presence of the large North African population in its major
cities, Genet’s late theatre has lost none of its profound political and aesthetic significance. Indeed, if anything, its power seems to have intensified, a fact which is borne out by the recent interest in staging his work in
Paris since the attacks on New York and Washington on 11 September
2001, and the subsequent invasions of Afghanistan and Iraq by US and
UK troops.1 Two decades
intimating a terrible, looming future. The colonial and
domestic perspectives were not successfully married in a single
production until the one that garnered the greatest critical attention
from outside Africa: Yael Farber’s 2001 SeZaR, produced for
the Grahamstown National Festival of the Arts and restaged at several
regional theatres in the UK the following year. Breaking from South
conceive of it?
Based on the economic theories of
Friedrich von Hayek, the 1980s neoliberalism pioneered by Ronald Reagan
in the USA and Margaret Thatcher in the UK rested on a radical
individualism that eschewed those principles of state welfare, social
progress and equality of opportunity on which the postwar consensus in
the UK and the Great Society in the US had rested. 11 Economic planning was decried
Orphans learn and remember in African American novels
Maria Holmgren Troy, Elizabeth Kella and Helena Wahlström
through the 1980s and 1990s in debates concerning radical changes
in welfare policy and in new attention to the legacy of slavery, and in
the 2000s with attention to the growth of a black middle class, public
scrutiny has continued unabated throughout the period we examine.
As one scholar puts it, ‘No system of family relations has received
as much scholarly and public attention … as that of the African
American family’ (K. Anderson, 1991: 259). Repeatedly linked to
issues of national welfare, black family relations have been pathologized but sometimes extolled
Manchester and the devolution of British literary culture
Corinne Fowler and Lynne Pearce
/ Theory / Politics, 58, 62–80.
Sissay, L. (2000a) ‘Island Mentality’ in Rebel without Applause.
Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Bloodaxe, 35.
Sissay, L. (2000b) ‘Mill Town and Africa’ in Rebel without Applause.
Newcastle-upon-Tyne: Bloodaxe, 45.
Sissay, L. (2002c) ‘Rage’ in Rebel without Applause. Newcastle-uponTyne: Bloodaxe, 62.
Sissay, L. (2007) ‘The Gilt of Cain’: www.cityoflondon.gov.uk/NR
3970 Postcolonial Manchester:Layout 1
Smith, Z. (2000) White Teeth. Harmondsworth
A breakthrough moment in international theatre-making?
hand, they were a flexible, responsive organisation able to travel fast
and light. Although this meant they lacked ‘resilience’ – an increasingly key term
for ACE – in the form of a permanent building or full-time administrator, they
had great stores of tenacity and innovation.7 The new holistic funding approach
I developed built on Barker’s existing rapport with the Academy across the globe.
It set out to be mutually beneficial. Increasingly UK academic institutions are
looking for high-profile ways of connecting their research to an external