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; local residents often racialised Gurkhas, at least initially, as ‘Chinese’. Tuzla, meanwhile, was the centre of US military presence, which peaked at 20,000 in 1996 before scaling down to 5,000 then 1,000 in 1998–2004 (Phillips 2004 ). US force-protection policies, after the humiliation of Somalia, made social encounters between local residents and US personnel much more transitory in late-1990s Bosnia than during the post-Second World War Allied occupation of Germany, and African-American troops did not have similar cultural impact 11 – though Bosnians recruited

in Race and the Yugoslav region
Open Access (free)
Frontier patterns old and new

some degree, and as a result, migrants of the 1950s and 1960s, returning from the UK after many years, were often characterised socially as ‘mad’ (Thomas-Hope, 1992 ). However, despite problems of re-engagement, returnees exercise sufficient influence for island governments like those of Jamaica and Barbados to woo them with periodic island association meetings in the Caribbean and to offer financial inducement packages on

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
Open Access (free)

by governments that have been democratically authorized by their citizens. Just as a legislature needs to be exposed to the articulation and mobilization of interests inside its territorial jurisdiction before it can legitimately adopt a law that affects such interests, so it must expose itself also to external interests when adopting a policy that affects these. I suggest some institutional remedies for this problem that could help to mitigate it within

in Democratic inclusion
Open Access (free)
A pluralist theory of citizenship

thus separate majorities in both polities. The decision rule may vary depending on the nature of the issue at stake, but generally the most plausible one is that a majority in each polity must agree to any new policy that has significant impact on the other. Granting veto power over a political decision to the citizens of a neighbouring state is obviously a proposal for which it will be hard to get political support. My point here, however, is that

in Democratic inclusion