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Catherine Baker

; local residents often racialised Gurkhas, at least initially, as ‘Chinese’. Tuzla, meanwhile, was the centre of US military presence, which peaked at 20,000 in 1996 before scaling down to 5,000 then 1,000 in 1998–2004 (Phillips 2004 ). US force-protection policies, after the humiliation of Somalia, made social encounters between local residents and US personnel much more transitory in late-1990s Bosnia than during the post-Second World War Allied occupation of Germany, and African-American troops did not have similar cultural impact 11 – though Bosnians recruited

in Race and the Yugoslav region
Eurosclerosis (1959– 84) and the second phase of integration (1985– 2003)
Peter J. Verovšek

key player in these negotiations. While its experience of total war differed greatly from those on the continent, collective memories of the two world wars had also reshaped attitudes across the English Channel. In contrast to the UK’s traditional scepticism towards involvement in continental affairs, after 1945 many in the British Isles concluded that they could not afford to ignore events on the continent. As a result, ‘Britain decided to reorient its traditional, essentially maritime, defence policy and to commit itself, in political and strategic terms, more

in Memory and the future of Europe
The Eurozone crisis, Brexit, and possible disintegration
Peter J. Verovšek

trinity – and not all postcommunist states were equally affected by them – the feeling of collective responsibility and the desire to make up for these historical wrongs were incorporated into shared Euro-Atlantic identities vis-à-vis the east. 20 For example, these dynamics were clearly visible during Margaret Thatcher’s visit to Prague in 1990. While there the British prime minister acknowledged that the UK had ‘failed you in 1938 when a disastrous policy of appeasement allowed Hitler to extinguish your independence.’ She expressed her support for the widening of

in Memory and the future of Europe
Open Access (free)
Frontier patterns old and new
Philip Nanton

some degree, and as a result, migrants of the 1950s and 1960s, returning from the UK after many years, were often characterised socially as ‘mad’ (Thomas-Hope, 1992 ). However, despite problems of re-engagement, returnees exercise sufficient influence for island governments like those of Jamaica and Barbados to woo them with periodic island association meetings in the Caribbean and to offer financial inducement packages on

in Frontiers of the Caribbean
Open Access (free)
Rainer Bauböck

by governments that have been democratically authorized by their citizens. Just as a legislature needs to be exposed to the articulation and mobilization of interests inside its territorial jurisdiction before it can legitimately adopt a law that affects such interests, so it must expose itself also to external interests when adopting a policy that affects these. I suggest some institutional remedies for this problem that could help to mitigate it within

in Democratic inclusion
Open Access (free)
A pluralist theory of citizenship
Rainer Bauböck

thus separate majorities in both polities. The decision rule may vary depending on the nature of the issue at stake, but generally the most plausible one is that a majority in each polity must agree to any new policy that has significant impact on the other. Granting veto power over a political decision to the citizens of a neighbouring state is obviously a proposal for which it will be hard to get political support. My point here, however, is that

in Democratic inclusion
Peter J. Verovšek

EU appeared to be ‘a paragon of international virtues: a community of values held up by Europeans and non-Europeans alike.’ 6 While the European project experienced some difficulties along the way, chapters 2 and 3 of this volume detail how community-based integration succeeded during the postwar period by building on the shared, collective memories of the rupture of 1945. In the aftermath of the combined crises of the Eurozone and the increased flow of refugees from Africa and the Middle East during the second decade of the twenty-first century, this

in Memory and the future of Europe