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European EU, forty-seven per cent from Central America, thirty-six per cent from North Africa and twenty-six per cent from the ‘Middle East’ – has also not been reflected in disease preparedness at these airports where port health precautions have been downplayed, uncoordinated and even ineffective.17 The Loughborough researchers argue that the enormous increase in air-passenger traffic to regional airports has forced a shift in the UK border that has ‘effectively re-sited or “localise[d]” the border both across and within UK territory’.18 They contend that because the

in The English System
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Historicising a ‘revolution’

-​sufficiency may be a legitimate political goal, but depending on migration while at the same time stigmatising migrants (the dominant narrative of British policy in this respect) is, as Christopher Kyriakides and Satnam Virdee have argued, somewhat paradoxical.7 More generally, this history shows that medical training in the UK has never been adequately aligned to the needs of the NHS. UK medical schools have not succeeded in bringing about a training system that over the long term has ensured that new cohorts of doctors contain sufficient numbers of graduates willing to fill

in Migrant architects of the NHS

Harbans Lall Gulati, a GP in Battersea for forty years until his death in 1967.41 Another Battersea doctor, Abdul Majid Shah committed suicide by gassing himself in 1935.42 The actor Sir Ben Kingsley is the son of Rahimtulla Bhanji, a South Asian doctor from East Africa who became a GP in Northern England before World War II.43 Dhani Prem, who became a councillor in Birmingham and was a prominent advocate of migrant and minority rights migrated to the UK in the 1930s.44 In 1925, Sureswar Sarkar, an Indian doctor living in Sheffield, was sentenced to five years of penal

in Migrant architects of the NHS
The working lives of paid carers from 1800 to the 1990s

Disability in Victorian England: The Earlswood Asylum 1847–1901 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2001), pp. 99–119. 34 S. Marks, ‘The microphysics of power: mental nursing in South Africa in  the  first half of the twentieth century’, in S. Mahone and M. Vaughan (eds), Psychiatry and Empire (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, 2007), pp. 67–98. 35 Local history groups are making personal photographs, biographical notes and other memorabilia available on websites alongside more traditional archival material. 36 See also J. Campbell, ‘Mental health policy, care in the community and

in Mental health nursing
Doctors’ organisations and activist medics

Medical Society when it was set up by Shadow Minister for Health Gerard Vaughan and became its secretary.53 Ray and Chandran were not the only South Asian doctors playing a leading role in debating issues affecting migrants and ethnic minority groups and influencing policy. M. Hamid Husain was described in 224 224 Shaping British medicine and society Figure 7  Dipak Ray speaking at the TUC Congress in the 1970s. 1983 by the Guardian as ‘one of the architects’ of a BMA plan aimed at reducing the numbers of migrant doctors coming to the UK which was being given

in Migrant architects of the NHS

described to him a matter of months after the start of the NHS. Lawrence, who was born in South Africa to South Asian ­parents decided to stay in Britain after marrying a white British woman. Returning to South Africa was not an option because of the apartheid regime’s policy on marriages between people classed as belonging to different ‘races’. In an interview in 1999 for the Millennium Memory 153 From ‘pairs of hands’ to family doctors153 Bank project, he recalled the way in which his options in the new NHS were presented to him by his superior: I discussed this with

in Migrant architects of the NHS

31 1 The making of a cornerstone Before exploring in detail the way in which migrant South Asian doctors shaped general practice and the NHS, I first want to situate their story within the broader context of the history of British healthcare, empire and of post-​war migration to the UK. The role of migrant doctors in the NHS is not confined to general practice. They were disproportionately represented in junior positions, less prestigious types of medicine and in geographical areas that were unpopular with local medical graduates. I will say more about the

in Migrant architects of the NHS
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Quarantine and professional identity in mid nineteenth-century Britain

more than just the global exchange of goods, or even the technologies, like steam-powered vessels, that transported microorganisms across longer distances in a shorter period of time than the world had ever seen. Instead, his focus is on the government policies regarding empire, and the concrete mechanisms they instituted to create, develop and maintain it. As Harrison has recently argued, ‘The 1800s saw the greatest redistribution of pathogens the world has ever known. Human, animal, and plant diseases circulated in many directions, with enormous social and

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914

Brinkmann, ‘From Immigrants to Supranational Transmigrants and Refugees: Jewish Migrants in New York and Berlin Before and After the Great War,’ Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East, 30–1 (2010), 47–57; Gur Alroey, ‘Out of the Shtetl. In the Footsteps of Eastern European Jewish Emigrants to America, 1900–1914,’ Leidschrift, 21–1 (2007), pp. 92–122; Adam McKeown, ‘Global Migration, 1846–1940,’ Journal of World History, 15 (2004), 155–90; and Torsten Feys, ‘The Visible Hand of Shipping Interests in American Migration Policies,’ Tijdschrift voor

in The English System

Graduates (ECFMG) examination.12 In Australia, the medical profession vociferously opposed political efforts to attract greater numbers of overseas doctors in the 1950s, although more liberal policies were adopted in the 1960s in a number of states/​territories, as was the case in the USA and Canada.13 By the 1970s, however, efforts were already beginning to be made in the USA, Canada and the UK to contain the flow of migrant doctors.14 Britain therefore offered a particularly welcoming environment in that from the 1940s to the 1970s, when subcontinental degrees ceased to

in Migrant architects of the NHS