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This paper traces the massacres of Jews and Soviet prisoners of war in November 1941 in the city of Bobruisk, Eastern Belarus. Sparked by a current memorial at one of the killing sites, the author examines the historic events of the killings themselves and presents a micro level analysis of the various techniques for murdering and disposing of such large numbers of victims. A contrast will be shown between the types of actions applied to the victims by the German army, SS, police personnel and other local collaborators, reflecting an imposed racial hierarchisation even after their death.

Human Remains and Violence: An Interdisciplinary Journal
Nekau II and Psamtek II

5 The heirs of Psamtek I: Nekau II and Psamtek II I  Nekau II Levantine policy Following the death of Psamtek I in 610 BC, his only known son, Nekau, born by Mehytenweskhet C, was crowned king as Nekau II. The earliest evidence relating to him is of his campaigning east of the river Euphrates against the Babylonians, in an action either previously sanctioned by Psamtek or already under way at the time of Psamtek’s death. Nekau and the Egyptian army marched north and together with their Assyrian allies confronted a combined force of Babylonians and Medes at

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
The last Saite ruler, Psamtek III

. Strabo (XVI, 2.25 C758) mentions that the Palestinian city of Akê (Acco) was utilised by the Persians as a base of operations against Egypt. Cambyses also made use of strategic information provided by Egyptian fugitives such as Phanes of Halicarnassus, a Carian mercenary officer serving under Ahmose II. Phanes, who fled to Persia following a disagreement with Ahmose II, provided Cambyses with intelligence relating to Egypt’s defences, as well as recommendations on how to cross the Sinai desert with his army.10 Phanes advised Cambyses to negotiate an agreement with the

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC

it had considerably expanded the territories under its control. The Assyrian rulers Tiglath-Pileser III and Sargon II (721–705 BC) led their armies on campaigns almost yearly, extending their dominance over the entire Near East. The multi-ethnic empire they created was a uniformly structured political entity, centrally controlled with well-defined and well-guarded borders, but, like many ancient empires, was beset by constant rebellions. Under the influence of these two powerful rulers, Assyria became even more militaristic, with the Assyrian war machine being the

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Setting the scene

st Dynasty. This deterioration in Egypt’s international power culminated in the loss of its last territories in western Asia during the late Ramesside Period. However, political turmoil and ‘libyan’ settlers it was major political events in the south of Egypt that are usually recognised as one of the key factors in the collapse of the New Kingdom model. An episode occurred known as the ‘Suppression of the High Priest, Amenhotep’,14 an event which is linked to the appearance of Panehesy, Viceroy of Kush, in Thebes at the head of a Kushite army. The chronology and

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC

the schistosome worm in two contemporary cadavers that he had dissected in Egypt. Ruffer (1910) went on to identify the calcified eggs in two ancient Egyptian mummies. Napoleon’s army (Nunn 1996: 69), and the British Royal Army Medical Corps (Leiper 1915), all had to contend with schistosomiasis during their time in Egypt, where it was likened to male menstruation (Hoeppli 1973). The characteristic abdominal shape which occurs in chronic schistosomiasis may be shown in some artworks from ancient Egypt (Loebl 1995: 1–4; Ghalioungui 1962), while some texts (Erman 1978

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt
Civil war to prosperity

Year 1 of Psamtek II.1 Foreign policy On the international front Haaibra had to deal with a number of challenges. He was confronted with the aftermath of Zedekiah’s rebellion against Babylon, to which Egypt had previously given its support. Nebuchadnezzar II, who had now dealt with the unrest and internal problems in his empire, marched on Jerusalem and laid siege to it for some two years.2 Haaibra sent an army to assist Jerusalem, but the Egyptian sources are silent as regards this incident, and we have to rely on Ezekiel and Jeremiah. According to Ezekiel (17

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Foreign relations and internal reforms

are suggested to have been road markers or possibly victory memorials set up along the route that the Egyptian army took into the western desert.2 Many of these stelae are badly preserved and now almost illegible, displaying only a few epithets. Stelae III and V furnish a few details concerning the victory of the king’s army, but it is Stela VII dating to Year 11 of Psamtek on which the text, although fragmentary, preserves a report of a campaign against the western tribes. The inscription indicates that the trouble had started in Year 10 of Psamtek and seems to

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Reunification of Egypt

exact events following the expulsion of the Kushites from Egypt and the departure of the main Assyrian army are uncertain, a power vacuum developed in Egypt, a vacuum that Psamtek was able to exploit. It would seem that early in his reign he began the process of consolidating power within his domain and embarked on a phase of expansion eastwards into the neighbouring Delta states. At this juncture there is no way of knowing if Psamtek’s territorial ambitions were limited to the north of Egypt or whether his ultimate aim was the reunification of the whole country

in Egypt of the Saite pharaohs, 664–525 BC
Abstract only
The sorry tale of Mr Fuller’s coffin

(of Lyme Park, Cheshire). The volume contains numerous additional asides which, combined with other narratives and sources, broaden our understanding of British travellers and workers in Egypt and the Near East between 1817 and 1819. The plans help us to place some museum artefacts precisely in their find-spots: notably the sphinxes and statues from Abu Simbel now in the British Museum. Irby and Mangles (1823: 155) refer to a ‘Mr. Fuller’ as the travelling companion of a distinguished army officer, Colonel (later Sir) Joseph Straton. For their journey into Upper

in Mummies, magic and medicine in ancient Egypt