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12 Ralegh’s image in art 1 Vivienne Westbrook I shall call the protagonist of this story ‘Ralegh’.1 I do not like to call him ‘Sir Walter’: as such he seems no more than a cliché, a posture, an adornment of English Heritage biscuit-tins and humorous No Smoking signs. He is caught in the dead space of recurrence. He is forever having to lay down his cloak in the mud, to parley with red-skinned Indians, to puff ­elabourately on a long clay-pipe. The pipe is his trademark, as familiar as Florence Nightingale’s lamp and Nelson’s empty sleeve.2 Introduction In

in Literary and visual Ralegh

Sir Walter Raleigh's literary legacy consists of a highly fragmented oeuvre including many unprinted or pirated poems and works of disputed authorship. No collection of Raleigh's poetry produced under his own direction or that of a contemporary, either in print or in manuscript, exists. This book is a collection of essays by scholars from Great Britain, the United States, Canada and Taiwan that covers a wide range of topics about Raleigh's diversified career and achievements. Some essays shed light on less familiar facets such as Raleigh as a father and as he is represented in paintings, statues, and in movies. Others re-examine him as poet, historian, as a controversial figure in Ireland during Elizabeth's reign, and looks at his complex relationship with and patronage of Edmund Spenser. The theme of Raleigh's poem is a mutability that is political: i.e., the precariousness of the ageing courtier's estate, as revealed by his fall from eminence and the loss of his privileged position in court. The Cynthia holograph engages in complex ways with idealistic pastoral, a genre predicated upon the pursuit of otium (a longing for the ideal and an escape from the actual). The Nymph's reply offers a reminder of the power of time and death to ensure the failure of that attempt. There were patrilineal imperatives that might have shaped Raleigh's views of sovereignty. Raleigh's story is an actor's story, one crafted by its own maker for the world-as-stage.

Religion, revolution, and the end of history in Dryden’s late works

erred in seeing the conversion as no more than a political expedient: it greatly deepened the impact of the Revolution on Dryden’s art, permanently reorienting his metaphysical compass, and in ways that seriously complicate the supposed triumph of Augustan values in politics and poetry. More broadly, my opening asks us to reconsider the place of religion and of spiritual politics in the Restoration, an era that has long been seen as the dawning of an Enlightenment culture of secularism and moderation. As Philip Connell has observed, ‘We continue

in Aesthetics of contingency

Despite experiments in the 1650s, through-sung opera failed to gain a firm foothold in Restoration England. Explanations for this circumstance have focussed on English taste, the finances of London’s theatre companies, and the popularity of native ‘dramatick opera’. While these were obstacles to the progress of through-sung opera in England, they do not explain why Thomas Betterton and the United Company ventured a rumoured £4000 on the production of Dryden’s and Grabu’s Albion and Albanius (1685). The lack of royal patronage has been overlooked as a barrier to the development of opera in England. Charles II displayed an ambivalent attitude to through-sung opera (English or otherwise) throughout his reign. His reticence to provide direct financial support was the most significant factor in the failure of the art form to find an important place in English culture of the Restoration period.

in From Republic to Restoration
Luxury, portraiture and the court of Charles II

relatives indeed. The largely unexplored influence of French portraiture on the court of Charles II complicates the usual art historical narrative of continuity between the early Stuarts and the Restoration period. Although a concern with continuity versus change is relatively recent in history and literary history, art historians have long made the case for continuity from the 1620s and 1630s to the 1660s in the English portraiture of the Flemish artist Sir Anthony van Dyck and the Dutch Sir Peter Lely.6 Such continuity is, however, often based on the assumption that

in From Republic to Restoration
Open Access (free)

express names taxing men more maliciously and impudently than became”; over time, this became the less bitter New Comedy, “more civil and pleasant a great deal and not touching any man by name, but in a certain generality glancing at every abuse” (Puttenham, Art, 120, 121, 122). Here Puttenham, although explicitly discussing dramatic comedy, MUP_Hile_SpenserSatire_Printer.indd 173 14/10/2016 15:36 174 Spenserian satire describes the contrast between what I referred to in Chapter 1 as direct satire and general satire. Puttenham and Sidney do not discuss what I call

in Spenserian satire
Queen Elizabeth I as Lady Alchymia

Lady Alchymia: a ‘chaste prostitute’ ‘Alchymya’, the muse of alchemy, faces the title page of The newe jewell of health (1576), George Baker’s edition of the alchemical receipts of Conrad Gesner, which Baker dedicated to Anne Cecil de Vere, Countess of Oxford (1556–1588) ( Figure 1 ). 5 Surrounded by the apparatus of her art, Alchymya stands

in Goddesses and Queens
Abstract only
Reframing drama, 1649– 65

Restoration ‘indemnity and oblivion act’ offered a general pardon with the exception of certain crimes and those who had been involved in the regicide. All seeds of future discords were to be buried by erasing ‘remembrance’ of the conflicts of the previous twenty years.3 Charles II’s Declaration of Breda of April 1660 had similarly sought to abolish ‘all notes of discord, separation and difference of parties’.4 In an address to both houses on 13 September 1660, Edward Hyde, Lord Chancellor, urged his audience to follow the King’s example and ‘learn this excellent art of

in From Republic to Restoration

able to passe this agony alone; not alone without thee; Thou art thy spirit; not alone without thine; spirituall and temporall Phisicians, are thine; not alone without mine; Thos whom the bands of blood, or friendship, hath made mine, are mine; And if thou, or thine, or mine, abandon me, I am alone; and wo unto me if I bee alone’ (Devotions 27). These parallelisms indicate that it is not only ‘thine’ that are coextensive with ‘thee’, i.e. God, but also ‘mine’. Despite the hierarchy between God, his servants (physicians) and the patient’s family and friends, the

in John Donne’s Performances
Petrarch’s Triumphs and the Elizabethan icon

second half of the capitolo describes the triumphal procession to the temple at Linturno, where Scipio himself joins the triumph, and where Laura deposits her spoils and her laurel crown. Once again the procession is precisely arranged to emphasise the central position occupied by Laura. In his numerological analysis of triumphs as an art form and a form of entertainment

in Goddesses and Queens