Tracing relatedness and diversity in the Albanian–Montenegrin borderland
local identity politics.
12 The equivalent emic expression is rodjak (or the diminutive rodjo).
13 The extermination of converts by Prince Danilo, which is the central theme of Njegoš’s
epic poem, lacks historical validity (Djilas 1966). Conversion to Islam was contested,
but remains an integral part of Montenegro’s history.
15 See below for reflections on the gender dimensions of this process.
16 The introduction of the Bajraktar title can also be seen as
agreement about the socially
cathartic potential of exhumations, these are processes that can be
unusually problematic (see Renshaw 2010) and enormously contested, as was illustrated by the Chibondo events, which I turn to
below. This is particularly the case where the identity of the dead and
the manner of their deaths are uncertain. In the exhumations of mass
graves at Chimoio, Nyadzonia, Freedom camp and other former
guerrilla camps in Zambia and Mozambique, the political identity of
the dead and the manner of their deaths were hardly in dispute, even
and Miller 2006) showed how new innovations were channelled into long-established national and personal projects of freedom.
The internet in particular took on a utopian representation that conjoined personal and market freedom with ideas of global mobility and
identity, giving it ‘a symbolic totality as well as a practical multiplicity’
(Miller and Slater 2000: 16). The same can be said about today’s
growing flow of data, powered by mutual improvements to internet
services and mobile devices.
The internet was once the domain of the
The bodyand counter-revolutionary warfare inapartheid South Africa
Apartheid South Africa 205
The war comes home
Among the many omissions laid at the door of South Africa’s
Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) is the absence of
statistics indicating the number of persons killed as a result of
political violence during the thirty-four-year period covered by its
remit (1 March 1960 to 10 May 1994). This seems surprising for a
commission specifically mandated to discover the ‘nature, causes
and extent of gross violations of human rights’4 – of which killing
was one such violation – and to determine the identity of both
sook ching (purge through cleansing) massacres – has become
symbolic of Japanese brutality. The death toll from these massacres remains contested; estimates range from 5,000 to 50,000.2 As
a result, multiple mass graves scar the territory’s landscape. While
these serve as physical testament to this dark period in the country’s history, many of these sites remain relatively unknown and
scarcely remembered.3 Often, documented cases of exhumations –
be it Bergen-Belsen in Germany, Vinnytsia in Ukraine, or Priaranza
in Spain, to name but a few sites where mass graves
Archives and collecting on the frontiers of data-driven science
, in order to understand these new
data-driven landscapes in science, we need to pay attention not only
to their archival tendencies but also to the contested spaces in which
data collection happens, shaped by accidents as much as intentions,
coloured by liminality, contingency and uncertainty. We might think
‘If everything is information’
of these spaces of data collection as ‘frontiers’, though it should be
noted that I do not use the languages of ‘frontiers’ in order to bolster
the much-criticised analytic of the centre and the periphery (Anderson 2002
Madeleine Hurd, Hastings Donnan and Carolin Leutloff-Grandits
families and the provision of moral and emotional
support: the relationship between truth and distance’, Identities: Global Studies in Culture
and Power, 14(4): 385–409.
Migrating borders and moving times
Baud, M. and W. van Schendel (1997) ‘Toward a comparative history of borderlands’,
Journal of World History, 8(2): 211–242.
Berdahl, D. (1999) Where the World Ended: Re-Unification and Identity in the German
Borderland. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Bigo, D. (2011) ‘Freedom and speed in enlarged borderzones’, in V. Squire (ed.), The
The forensic and political lives of secondary mass graves in Bosnia and Herzegovina
Admir Jugo and Sari Wastell
aims to explore the particular agency of the phenomenon of the secondary mass grave in the network of associations that
constitutes the contested ground of BiH’s memory politics. Why
might a secondary mass grave play a distinct role from a primary
mass grave, and in what ways, and for whom? Through an (admittedly implicit) description of the actor-network in which these
graves are embedded, and the many sorts of actants with which they
144 Admir Jugo and Sari Wastell
are in relation, the authors will attempt to describe the precarious
and shifting place of Bosnia
Contested narratives of the independence struggle in postconfl ict Timor-Leste
Claiming the dead, defining the nation:
contested narratives of the independence
struggle in post-conflict Timor-Leste1
Timor-Leste’s struggle for independence (1975–99) cost the lives of
more than 108,000 people, the majority of them unarmed civilians.
Throughout the period of the Indonesian occupation, a small armed
resistance movement, the Falintil (Forças Armadas de Libertação
Nacional de Timor-Leste) fought militarily against the occupation
forces, supported by a civilian resistance network.
With independence, a new national
causes abjection but what disturbs
identity, system, order. What does not respect borders, positions,
rules’ (1982: 4). Against biological explanations of the repulsion that
dead bodies produce, Kristeva holds that the abject and abjection
are ‘primers of culture’ that draw us ‘toward the place where meaning collapses’, a place beyond discourse. The abject does not signify
death: ‘No, as in true theatre … refuse and corpses show me what I
permanently thrust aside in order to live’ (1982: 2). In Kernaghan’s
interpretation (2009; this volume), the Peruvian Shining Path