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’ with the physicality, or physical properties, of goods and social objects. It then contrasts this physicality with a ‘something else’ – meanings, signs, culture, desires, identities, services, information or knowledge. These are then regarded, firstly, as non-physical (hence having quite different kinds of social properties); secondly, as additive (a later accretion or layering of physical reality); and, finally, as historical (things have become more immaterial, or immaterial things have become more socioeconomically central today). The argument proposed in this

in Market relations and the competitive process
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and state provision and regulation of those activities is normal. In others, selfregulation of the market process is combined with heavy external regulation, as in the case of food and drink provision, privatised utilities and drugs. In yet others, the regulatory hand of the state is lightly applied as in the case of markets for financial, legal and medical services, which are subject to strong professional regulation. Of course, in each of these cases the boundary between internal selfregulation and external regulation by the state is contested and, as Nelson

in Market relations and the competitive process

he allegedly claimed that ‘if you put two economists in a room, you get two opinions’.16 Economics was already developing in a way that would assuage Churchill’s frustration. A key part of forming an authoritative intellectual community is to develop a distinct identity for the body of knowledge which can then be used to establish its boundaries, evaluate good and bad practice, define the terms of membership of the community and ensure its continued existence. This is done through setting up learned societies, journals, conferences, graduate training programmes

in The econocracy

Chapter 3 Beyond neoclassical economics Economics as a contested discipline pluralism n. a condition or system in which two or more states, groups, principles, sources of authority, etc., coexist.1 Economics education shapes how its students think about the world. This makes economics powerful, as those who study it often go on to have significant authority. Economics is presented as a unified field and its association with maths and statistics makes it easy to see it as a science. However, this is not the reality. In this chapter we argue that there is a

in The econocracy

, multiple retailers established an integrated national market for food retailing (Jefferys, 1954). In a second phase, from the early 1970s, but accelerating through the 1980s, the small handful of major retailers established a commanding share, and two, Tesco and Sainsbury, contested for market leadership (Wrigley and Lowe, 1996). As a mark of their power, these two market the highest supermarket ownlabel proportion of goods of any food retailers – in many product ranges well over 50 per cent and in key ranges up to 100 per cent. This is a story of growth as much as of

in Market relations and the competitive process