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The historical context of partition

contesting British rule for decades, Congress leaders were eager to attain independence. Gandhi had begun pushing for an unconditional withdrawal years earlier, with uncompromising calls to ‘leave India to God. If that is too much, then leave her to anarchy.’ 28 He rejected the notion that India needed British assistance to ensure the continuation of law and order after independence; the time for patience was past. Nehru later

in Borders and conflict in South Asia
The development of the Indo-Pakistani borderlands

term ‘borderland’ refers to the area surrounding the boundary, a loosely defined zone including territory in both India and Pakistan that is directly influenced by the boundary. Manto’s story, written in 1948, reflects the difficult border development that followed partition. Villages in this area suddenly found themselves on a new frontier, on land that was contested – or sometimes jointly neglected

in Borders and conflict in South Asia
The façade of South Asian responsibility

four commissioners elect their own chairman. If agreement between the commissioners proved difficult, he suggested, Congress and League party leaders would agree on a nominee. Only ten weeks before partition, the identity of the boundary commission chairman was far from settled. Meanwhile, Listowel was making inquiries as to a suitable jurist to chair the Arbitral Tribunal. He requested suggestions from

in Borders and conflict in South Asia