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’ with the physicality, or physical properties, of goods and social objects. It then contrasts this physicality with a ‘something else’ – meanings, signs, culture, desires, identities, services, information or knowledge. These are then regarded, firstly, as non-physical (hence having quite different kinds of social properties); secondly, as additive (a later accretion or layering of physical reality); and, finally, as historical (things have become more immaterial, or immaterial things have become more socioeconomically central today). The argument proposed in this

in Market relations and the competitive process

are at no stage claiming that Ferranti executives were guilty of perpetrating a fraud on their shareholders, serious questions must be asked about the quality of information accumulated and the way it was utilised. One dimension to all this was the prevailing attitudes towards corporate governance, in that the board, and in particular Derek Alun-Jones as chief executive, would appear to have taken decisions without the need to take into consideration the interests of other stakeholders. At the same time, it is necessary to assess the environment in which the board

in Ferranti: A History
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extremely low price of $7.5 million for 16,000 radios, in the hope that this loss-leader would provide an entrée into defence markets. It was later calculated that Hamilton was losing at least $200 per radio, while the substantial investment in a refurbished factory further sapped the ailing corporation’s resources. Undaunted by these problems, Guerin talked to colleagues about opening a division of the business in South East Asia and buying a corporate jet to transport executives between the proposed far-flung parts of the Hamilton empire. He also used his charismatic

in Ferranti: A History
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and the primary dealer; money market funds for commercial paper; insurance companies for debt and equity securities, commercial paper, OTC derivatives and MBSs and CMBSs; and finally corporate issuers for debt, equity and OTC derivatives. Many clients and counterparties found themselves exposed to multiple Lehman Brothers entities in various legal jurisdictions, with different bankruptcy and insolvency laws and contractual protections and remedies. Lehman Brothers International (Europe) based in London also suffered from the nightly sweep. Like

in Lehman Brothers

identity which management was attempting to achieve, in effect it is difficult to see how significant progress had been made in absorbing ISC into the Ferranti organisation. In particular, the existence of two executive committees ensured that decision-making and scrutiny of contracts and finances could well be blurred. Even though Guerin justified the existence of the Proxy Board to the Ferranti International board as a means of providing access to lucrative US defence markets,8 it was clearly going to be difficult to influence what was happening in that committee. Some

in Ferranti: A History

relevant to recent history will be sufficient.16 These include: benchmark submission and administration; proprietary traders; material risk takers; client-dealing; algorithmic trading; and heads of units, such as retail banking, personal lending and corporate lending.17 A bank has to certify, on an annual basis, that both senior managers and certified employees are fit and proper to carry out their roles. The requirement to certify employees is a sea change from the hiring of FX staff as described by Kevin Rodgers, a manager at Deutsche Bank: The e-trading team was

in Holding bankers to account
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Frugality, de-growth and Voluntary Simplicity

, slower or greener growth for this would leave us trapped within the same economic logic; rather we need to escape from the economy as a system of representation. This means re-​imagining economic relations, identities, activities in different terms’ (2008:529). Similarly, Sklair says the solution to the ecological imperative does not lie in challenging the market, but in ignoring it (2016:109). For him the only solution is post-​capitalist, and lies in the creation of small-​scale autonomous communities of solidarity based on networks of relatively small producer

in A brief history of thrift

, Beyond neoclassical economics  83 or other a­ greements such as wills. Many laws are so common that we don’t even view them as restrictive: laws that make store owners give receipts and accept returns; laws against child and slave labour; and laws banning trade in things such as votes or identities.61 Corporations themselves could not exist in the form we recognise without laws that protect shareholder’s rights, grant the corporation limited liability for its debts should it go bankrupt, and define the structures of corporate governance. The free market versus state

in The econocracy

experiences, common dependencies, corporate interlocks, and active creation of new social relations. Samuel Insull and his circle of collaborators socially constructed their firms in similar ways, and then promoted a system of industry governance and template diffusion. They drew upon their local and national contacts to re-frame the market and the political system in ways that pressured utility firms toward technical, organisational, economic and legal conformity’ (Granovetter and McGuire, 1998, p. 167). ‘The actor’s ontology is variable: his or her objectives, interests

in Market relations and the competitive process