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The construction of the leper in Narbonne and Siena before the plague
Anna M. Peterson

governs lepers. Lay authorities regulated the behaviour of leprosy sufferers through laws and ordinances. Some leprosaria were regulated by sets of statutes that could be supplied by the local episcopal authority. 57 The most significant set of ecclesiastical instructions regarding leprosy were set out in Canon 23 of the aforementioned Council. This oft-cited canon was the basis for supporting lepers’ access to religious services. It criticised priests and ecclesiastics who barred lepers from having their own churches and ministers. 58 More importantly, it

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
Intercession and integration in the medieval English leper hospital
Carole Rawcliffe

sisters, as well as by nine monastic houses scattered across Devon and Cornwall. They could also expect a grand total of fourteen years’ and 400 days’ remission of penance, secured through the many papal and episcopal indulgences allegedly awarded to the hospital. 63 These letters of confraternity bear all the hallmarks of a ‘pious fraud’, designed to raise much-needed capital by exploiting widespread fears about the torments to come and anxiety about the best means of avoiding them. As reformers were later to complain, flagrant profiteering and even deceit were bound

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
The social identities of lepers in the late medieval Rhineland
Lucy Barnhouse

of the fourteenth century treats the hospital as belonging to its residents, rather than designed for their social or spiritual discipline. 21 The twelfth- and thirteenth-century rules for French leprosaria edited by Léon Le Grand provide rich evidence for ongoing social ties. Numerous regulations are designed to regulate the interactions of residents with people outside hospitals. The 1315 statutes of Pontoise, for instance, declare that family members of the leprous cannot be taken under the legal authority of the house unless they make vows and take the

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
New perspectives on iconography
Luke Demaitre

instances, however (including the scenes in Figures 8.4 , 8.5 and 8.8 ), the exposure was clearly intended to give greater visibility to bodily marks. In later depictions, more and more of the body became covered: first the torso, and then the head – including the mouth in a few remarkable cases – the lower legs and feet, and even the hands. The last, however, were seldom illustrated, even though municipal authorities across Europe issued ordinances to wear gloves; the clearest illustration was produced in England in the second quarter of the fourteenth century. 16

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
The distorted identities of leprosy within the Order of Saint Lazarus
Rafaël Hyacinthe

development of the Order. 14 By 1262, Urban IV had released the Lazarites from episcopal control, thus granting them greater autonomy. 15 The evolution of the hospitaller convent into a crusading militia is documented through its normative texts. The Rule of Saint Lazarus itself is the most useful of these documents. Unfortunately it survives only as a fourteenth-century copy in German, gathering together two distinctive parts. 16 The first part was drawn up ‘in Jerusalem’, hence between 1130 and 1187. It deals with the situation of the leprosy sufferers: how, as

in Leprosy and identity in the Middle Ages
Space, identity and power

This volume aims to disclose the political, social and cultural factors that influenced the sanitary measures against epidemics developed in the Mediterranean during the long nineteenth century. The contributions to the book provide new interdisciplinary insights to the booming field of ‘quarantine studies’ through a systematic use of the analytic categories of space, identity and power. The ultimate goal is to show the multidimensional nature of quarantine, the intimate links that sanitary administrations and institutions had with the territorial organization of states, international trade, the construction of national, colonial, religious and professional identities or the configuration of political regimes. The circum-Mediterranean geographical spread of the case studies contained in this volume illuminates the similarities and differences around and across this sea, on the southern and northern shores, in Arabic, Spanish, Portuguese, Greek, Italian, English and French-speaking domains. At the same time, it is highly interested in engaging in the global English-speaking community, offering a wide range of terms, sources, bibliography, interpretative tools and views produced and elaborated in various Mediterranean countries. The historical approach will be useful to recognize the secular tensions that still lie behind present-day issues such as the return of epidemics or the global flows of migrants and refugees.

Philomena Gorey

, ecclesiastical authorities’ direct concern with baptism and the soul of the newborn baby meant that they demanded a central role in the regulation of midwives. They feared that women might use unconventional treatments or have recourse to cunning folk or magical healers. 6 There is little precedent for a thorough investigation into the office of midwife in Irish medical historiography. Midwives were nameless birth attendants, who like so many women left very little imprint on surviving historical sources. A paucity of records has

in Early Modern Ireland and the world of medicine
Clement Masakure

biomedicine in government clinics in African areas. Although the government focused on rural areas in the 1930s and 1940s, medical service provision in urban areas was also in crisis. Specifically, African hospitals in urban areas experienced a shortage of nursing personnel. For African urban areas, the government wanted another type of nursing personnel: the State Registered Nurse (SRN), also referred to as the qualified nurse. There were debates in the mid-1940s that emphasised the need for African SRNs. From these debates, authorities reached a consensus on the need for

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
Abstract only
Alun Withey

large amounts of time devoted to the physical needsof the sufferer, such as preparation of medicines, maintenance of the fire and laundry, all traditionally female domestic tasks. Many early modern remedies were likewise extremely labour-intensive, often requiring many stages of preparation and continuous monitoring. Women were certainly regarded as legitimate sources of domestic medical authority, and, in areas such as midwifery, their authority as experts on the female body, birth cycles and such matters as bastardy was noted.11 In English poor law records, it was

in Physick and the family
Dominique Bon

process by placing Nice under the authority of a Consiglio Generale di Sanità Marittima (General Maritime Health Board) located in Genoa. This board was headed by the renowned doctor Angelo Bo (1801–74), who was also professor of medicine at the Royal University of Genoa and would act as the Sardinian delegate at the first ISC. The cholera epidemic of 1849 tested the new system. The Consiglio Generale di Sanità Marittima decided to impose five days of quarantine. Following the recommendation, the Consulta di Sanità Marittima of Nice (the city’s Local Health Council

in Mediterranean Quarantines, 1750–1914