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Lindy Brady

texts that depict his life show his roots in the cultural nexus of the Welsh borderlands, presented as a locus of elite military advancement. Guthlac spent a portion of his youth exiled among the British and as the leader of a multi-ethnic war band, and contemporary Welsh and CambroLatin texts also make clear that these were core characteristics of military life in the borderlands. The mixed culture of the Welsh borderlands is also evident in this chapter’s second significant argument: that even in this Anglo-Saxon saint’s life, the politics of land control are much

in Writing the Welsh borderlands in Anglo-Saxon England
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

without a fixed place of abode or useful occupation resulted in a new vagrancy act requiring the flogging of offenders and their forced return to the places where they had been born or had previously resided for at least three years. 58 Tudor political culture regarded the idle poor as anathema, whatever their ethnic or racial background. It is interesting in this respect that, when the Egyptian Act was amended in 1554, it was specified that those who would abandon the nomadic lifestyle and adopt a stable home and useful employment would be allowed to remain in the

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
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The Dunsoete Agreement and daily life in the Welsh borderlands
Lindy Brady

of influence by Ine’s laws, even though they were still valid in the tenth century via their preservation in Alfred’s domboc and the Norðleoda laga.20 Ine’s laws are notorious for an ethnically tiered system of wergilds, in which Britons appear to be valued significantly less than their Anglo-Saxon counterparts in social rank. They are most often interpreted as casting the Britons in an ‘inferior social position’, creating a ‘sense of ethnic superiority on the part of the Saxons’ in which ‘the “otherness” of the Britons’ is emphasised ‘in order to manufacture a

in Writing the Welsh borderlands in Anglo-Saxon England
Lindy Brady

’s equal rancour towards the pagan Mercians, the Historia Ecclesiastica inadvertently preserves a substantial amount of information about the life of Penda of Mercia, whose entire reign over this borderlands kingdom was defined by consistent political and military unity with the Welsh rulers of Gwynedd and Powys against other Anglo-Saxon kingdoms. Penda’s life provides a window into the mixed Anglo-Welsh culture of the borderlands as a region which stands apart from Bede’s narrative of ethnic division between Anglo-Saxons and Britons. This chapter follows recent

in Writing the Welsh borderlands in Anglo-Saxon England
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Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

’s attributes in reference to a discreet and stable territorial state. 8 In spite of this emergent isolationism, English notions of ethnicity did not, as so often in medieval and modern societies, result in some assertion of a ring-fenced racial purity. The cultural and political constructions of ethnic identity in the Anglo-Saxon kingdoms of the early Middle Ages may have subscribed quite forcefully to a notion of exclusive ethnogenesis, in which self-identification with continental Germanic ancestors became the means of differentiating the dominant

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

Working and living together Having understood the nature of the ‘Englishness’ that aliens encountered on their entry and settlement in the kingdom, and the various contributions that immigrants in turn made to the evolving culture of their adopted country, we now turn to consider some of the social interactions that resident aliens had, both with people of their own ethnicity and with their English neighbours. This includes the generally peaceful contacts revealed in the workplace and in the practice of religion

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

,978 people of French background recorded on the Westminster Abbey denization roll of the 1540s, 505 have identifiable towns or cities of origin, the vast majority in Normandy, Picardy, Brittany and elsewhere along the northern coast. 25 No fewer than 116 were from the Norman capital of Rouen, with other concentrations in the Cotentin peninsula, the Pays de Bray along the Normandy–Picardy border and the region around Caen and the Seine estuary. While the major towns of these regions were almost all represented, many other people came from rural villages across northern

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
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Gottschalk of Orbais and the predestination controversy in the archdiocese of Rheims
Matthew Bryan Gillis

and forcibly tonsured him as a boy. 14 While Gottschalk was absolved of his vow, he earned the enmity of Hrabanus, who in his Liber de oblatione puerorum labelled Gottschalk a vicious rebel spreading heresy about monastic life and child oblation in particular. 15 Hrabanus also emphasised the fact that Gottschalk’s Saxon ethnicity contributed to his tendency to heresy, since the Saxons had only recently been forced to accept Christianity by the conquering Franks. 16 Though the accusations of heresy seem to have fallen on deaf ears, Hrabanus watched his former

in Hincmar of Rheims
Mark Ormrod, Bart Lambert and Jonathan Mackman

, 132 in Northumberland and sixty-nine in Westmorland. Only 152 instances of Scottish servants were recorded south of the Humber. 55 The number of women in this group was unusually high. Whereas only 18 per cent of all instances of aliens in the subsidy returns were female, 38 per cent of those described as Scottish servants were female, rising to 43 and 46 per cent respectively in the northern counties of Cumberland and Westmorland. Everything suggests that these Scots were unskilled immigrants of humble social backgrounds. They included

in Immigrant England, 1300–1550
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Susan M. Johns

the Princes’, as conceptualised by T. Jones Pierce. 1 The concept embraces the complex developments which occurred within Wales and takes account of the pre-eminence of the political affinities, dynasties and ruling elites within Wales, and the dynamic role of war. While British medieval historiography has developed interesting and new areas of historical enquiry, such as considerations of ethnicity, gender and masculinity, this book is necessary because it fills a significant gap in the historiography of medieval Wales – while women’s power has been one of the

in Gender, nation and conquest in the high Middle Ages