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Meghalaya might be an object lesson in Bengali as much as British imperialism. The last Welsh missionaries in the north-east packed their bags in the 1960s, but the legacy of a century and a quarter of evangelisation in the hills has left an indelible mark. Historian Manorama Sharma has also gone so far as to argue that present-day crises of governance in the north-east should be put in the context of the

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism
The conversion of Irish Catholics, c.1721–34

towards the same conclusion. This acceptance of the Catholic religion had much to do with the fact that the Protestant fear of Catholics in the 1730s had dropped to an almost negligible level. This should not obscure the fact that most Irish Protestants still viewed Catholics as a potential threat and that there were still some in the Irish House of Commons committed to ecclesiastical prohibition of Catholicism.8 The second approach to conversion adopted by Irish Protestants was the use of the Irish language to evangelise the native population. The underlying assumption

in Witchcraft and Whigs

As Lowry argues, such outsiders in fact played less of a role in opposition to the monarchy than has been suggested; in the case of Canada, anti-monarchy agitators were as likely or more likely to be Anglo-Protestant than Irish Catholic. Much recent and important work has identified the investment and contribution to the British imperial project by the Scottish, Welsh and Irish who administered, fought for, evangelised in and

in Royals on tour
American colonial and missionary nurses in Puerto Rico, 1900–30

explain that evangelising Puerto Rico would not be overly difficult because it was ‘now a part of the United States, and will henceforth be ruled by American ideas, embodied in American institutions and laws, and be molded by the influence of our civilization’.10 Trained nursing became one of several avenues to introducing US culture and ideas in the newly acquired territory. The colonial government also freely connected the colonial mission with the Christian mission promoted by the Protestants. In 1901 the first civil governor of Puerto Rico, Charles Allen, praised

in Colonial caring
The Empire of Clouds in north-east India

In 1841, the Welsh sent their first missionary, Thomas Jones, to evangelise the tribal peoples of the Khasi Hills of north-east India. This book follows Jones from rural Wales to Cherrapunji, the wettest place on earth and now one of the most Christianised parts of India. It is about the piety and practices, the perceptions and prejudices of people in early nineteenth century Wales. The book is also about the ways in which the religious ambitions of those same people operated upon the lives and ideas of indigenous societies of the distant Khasi Hills of north-eastern India. It foregrounds broader political, scientific, racial and military ideologies that mobilised the Khasi Hills into an interconnected network of imperial control. Its themes are universal: crises of authority, the loneliness of geographical isolation, sexual scandal, greed and exploitation, personal and institutional dogma, individual and group morality. In analysing the individual lives that flash in and out of this history, the book is a performance within the effort to break down the many dimensions of distance that the imperial scene prescribes. It pays attention to a 'networked conception of imperial interconnection'. The book discusses Jones's evangelising among the Khasis as well as his conflicts with church and state authority. It also discusses some aspects of the micro-politics of mission and state in the two decades immediately following Thomas Jones's death. While the Welsh missionary impact was significant, its 'success' or indeed its novelty, needs to be measured against the pre-existing activities of British imperialists.

).34 At first glance, testimony about slaves’ use of French or Creole language seems to indicate that it was perceived as essentially defective. In the early colony, Pelleprat considered the use of Creole as an ‘accommodation’. The slaves’ ‘way of speaking’ was characterised by the absence of conjugation of verbs, so that a temporal marker (e.g. ‘demain moi manger’) was necessary.35 Their evangelisation, he writes, was a difficult process, given that ‘most [slaves] only halfunderstand the things that are being said to them’. Interpreters came up against the

in Frontiers of servitude

evangelising ambitions also need to be grounded in the context of previous missionary excursions in the northeast. In both spheres, the missionary relied on a network of elaborate symbioses that had developed among a range of colonial agents. The Calcutta Christian alliance Five days before the Jamaica had left port, Roberts had informed Jones that the

in Welsh missionaries and British imperialism
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The Neuendettelsau missionaries’ encounter with language and myth in New Guinea

-speaking congregations located in North America and Australia. 14 Students therefore studied only biblical languages (Hebrew, Latin and Greek) and English. 15 Over time, however, Neuendettelsau seminary graduates also began evangelising among ‘heathens’: first among Native Americans in North America in the 1850s, then a couple of decades later among Aboriginals in central Australia, and then finally in New Guinea from 1886 onwards. In spite of this growing focus, the majority of seminary

in Savage worlds
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The London Missionary Society in Polynesia and Australia, 1800–50

into the Pacific region since the late eighteenth century – ensured that colonialism and evangelisation to some extent proceeded together. Whilst the LMS theoretically sought to distance itself from the often less than humanitarian policies and practices of British imperialism, the reliance of the missionaries in the field upon colonial administrative, civil and transport systems

in Colonial frontiers
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established in Scotland to support the Irish missions in the 1840s, and financial contributions from there constituted a significant proportion of the funds available to missions in Ireland.42 At a special meeting of the Synod to discuss missionary activity in September 1833, speeches on missionary work amongst Catholics in Ireland were delivered by two Church of Scotland ministers, Duncan Macfarlane of Renfrew (1793–1853) and Norman McLeod of Campsie (1812–72), the noted Gaelic scholar.43 The concern of Presbyterians in Ireland and Scotland to promote the evangelisation of

in Making and remaking saints in nineteenth-century Britain