rather than scenarios: affording diverging, iterative and open-ended play instead of singular,
predefined, top-down planning narratives.
If we think of politics as participation, we observe a tension between competition and collaboration in smart city governance. Real-time is used as the
equivalent of smart, individual or collective.11 Many smart apps frequently resort
to competition. Klauser, Paasche and Söderström (2014), for instance, describe
how an IBM Smarter Energy Executive believes that people can be encouraged to
change their behaviour
is going global. All of us are seeking to make sense of, and manage, change.
The key to the management of change is reform. The pace of reform has
to match the pace of change. Societies that are open, flexible, able easily
to distinguish between fundamental values, which they must keep and
policies, which they must adapt, will prosper. Those that move too slowly
or are in hock to vested interests or what I have elsewhere called forces of
conservatism, reacting negatively to change, will fall behind. (Tony Blair,
2000a: 1, Speech at the World Economic Forum