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Eoin Daly and Tom Hickey

3 Political constitutionalism and executive power Introduction We have focused so far on the theory of republican freedom in rather abstract terms. In Part II, however, we consider how these ideas relate to specific questions of institutional design. In particular, we consider how republican theory might inform the inter-relationship between the legislative, executive and judicial organs of government. In this chapter, we assess the Westminster model of responsible government – both as it is posited in the text of the Irish Constitution and as it is practised in

in The political theory of the Irish Constitution
Transformation and the regulatory state
Author: Masahiro Mogaki

This book explores the transformation of the Japanese state in response to a variety of challenges by focusing on two case studies: Information and Communications Technology (ICT) regulation and anti-monopoly regulation after the 1980s, which experienced a disjuncture and significant transformation during the period, with particularistic approaches embracing competition. The case studies set up the state as the key locus of power, in contrast to pluralist and rational choice schools, which regard the state as insignificant. The analytical framework is drawn from key theories of governance and the state including the concepts of the core executive and the regulatory state. The book explores the extent to which there is asymmetric dominance on the part of Japan’s core executive through an examination of recent developments in the Japanese regulatory tradition since the 1980s. It concludes that the transformation of the Japanese state in the two case studies can be characterised as Japanese regulatory state development, with a view that the state at a macro level is the key locus of power. This book explores the transformation of the state and governance in a Japanese context and presents itself as an example of the new governance school addressing the state, its transformation, and the governance of the political arena in Japanese politics and beyond, setting out a challenge to the established body of pluralist and rational choice literature on Japanese politics.

Fabrice Weissman

, which may describe the horrendous conditions in which the hostages are being held and the payment of ransom to criminal and political networks ( Callimachi, 2014a , 2014b ; Kiser, 2013 ). In the end, vital information about the abductions remains the monopoly of the political and criminal networks carrying them out, the aid-organisation crisis units handling them, the private security firms advising them and the intelligence services observing them. Keeping the public and aid workers

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Series: Politics Today
Author: David Arter

This book analyses the contemporary politics of the nation states of Denmark, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden and the Home Rule territories of Greenland, Faeroes and Åland that together make up the Nordic region. It covers Scandinavia past and present, parties in developmental perspective, the Scandinavian party system model, the Nordic model of government, the Nordic welfare model, legislative-executive relations in the region, and the changing security environment. The Nordic states have a shared history, common linguistic bonds and a common state Lutheran religion. Of the six Scandinavian languages, Danish, Norwegian and Swedish are mutually intelligible, whilst Swedish is an official national language in Finland. Turning to a brief overview of nation-building and state-building in the Nordic region, an obvious distinction can be drawn between those 'stateless nations' which went on to achieve statehood and the territories that have not achieved independence. The book presents a brief chronology of events in Norden up to 1922, when Åland achieved autonomy. In Sweden the historic phase of party-building produced a basic two-plus-three configuration and a party system based on five 'isms': communism, social democracy, agrarianism, liberalism and conservatism. By 1930 there was a bifurcated parliamentary left and a fragmented nonsocialist bloc consisting of essentially town-based Liberal and Conservative parties and a farmer-based Agrarian Party. Whilst acknowledging the limitations inherent in the periodisation of party system change, the book focuses on the extent of party system change since the 'earthquake elections' of 1970-73.

Mel Bunce

disinformation. But they have not yet closely examined their impact in humanitarian crises. This is a remarkable oversight. In humanitarian crises, false information can have life-and-death consequences. As Jeanne Bourgault, President and Chief Executive Officer of Internews, states, false information can ‘undercut efforts to improve health, make disasters worse than they already are, alienate vulnerable populations, and even incite violence’ (quoted in Igoe, 2017 ). This article introduces the emerging research about online disinformation and the many forms it

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

: geographic distances as national or international responders travel to a locale experiencing crisis, but also social, cultural, political and narrative distances due to the vastly divergent experiences of people caught up in crises. A key challenge for humanitarian ethics is to take account both of the steep asymmetries between those seeking to provide assistance (though not always succeeding) and others who require help due to a crisis, and the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Author: Alexandra Kelso

The Labour Party government elected in 1997 pledged to reform the Westminster parliament by modernising the House of Commons and removing the hereditary peers from the House of Lords. Events have consequently demonstrated the deep controversy that accompanies such attempts at institutional reconfiguration, and have highlighted the shifting fault-lines in executive-legislative relations in the UK, as well as the deep complexities surrounding British constitutional politics. The story of parliamentary reform is about the nature of the British political system, about how the government seeks to expand its control over parliament, and about how parliament discharges its duty to scrutinise the executive and hold it to account. This book charts the course of Westminster reform since 1997, but does so by placing it in the context of parliamentary reform pursued in the past, and thus adopts a historical perspective that lends it analytical value. It examines parliamentary reform through the lens of institutional theory, in order not only to describe reform but also to interpret and explain it. The book also draws on extensive interviews conducted with MPs and peers involved in the reform of parliament since 1997, thus offering an insight into how these political actors perceived the reform process in which they played a part. It provides a comprehensive analysis of the trajectory and outcome of the reform of parliament, along with an original interpretation of that reform and its implications.

Learning from the case of Kosovo
Jenny H. Peterson

-administration for Kosovo (O’Neill, 2002). The first tenet largely ensured that Russia would not veto the resolution at the UN and confirmed Kosovo as legally remaining part of the Serbian state. A major barrier to achieving the latter aim of the resolution is that ‘no one knew what the terms “substantial autonomy” and “meaningful self-administration” really meant’ (O’Neill, 2002: 30). Resolution 1244 granted the UN administration executive control over all of Kosovo’s governing institutions. All laws, programmes, political and economic agreements had to be approved by the Special

in Building a peace economy?
Managing the criminal facets of war economies
Jenny H. Peterson

prosecutors were hired, and the structures in which they worked, they were directly linked to the executive UN powers, as opposed to operating independently. While individuals within the IJPP have strongly resisted such political interference, the success of this resistance has been limited and an ongoing struggle between legal priorities and political aims continues. The use of the criminalisation discourse to justify the mechanisms of control described above is, however, masked by another rhetorical tool. RoL 92 4062 building a peace economy_2652Prelims 25/11/2013 15

in Building a peace economy?
DSI approaches and behaviours
Jenny H. Peterson

strategy is denial, whereby international actors forbid certain forms of politicisation or capture. This may involve prohibiting military actors from engaging in party politics or maintaining executive authority over key areas of programming. In the case of Kosovo we see evidence of all three strategies and a movement between them. Consider, for example, the evolution in dealing with criminal elements within the KPC which has seen DSI actors move from a relative strategy of acceptance to one of denial as both the external and internal political environment was judged to

in Building a peace economy?