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The challenge of Northern Ireland

Jeremy Harbison and to agree to establish a Commissioner for Children and Young People on the lines of similar ‘champions’ in Great Britain. But before final decisions had been taken on equality and community relations, the Executive collapsed in disarray over allegations of spying, ushering in a further four and a half years of Direct Rule. The immediate if unintended consequence, however, was that Northern Ireland now participated directly in an avalanche of legislation and policy around diversity issues arising from the political priorities of the Labour government

in Tolerance and diversity in Ireland, North and South

Building on earlier work, this text combines theoretical perspectives with empirical work, to provide a comparative analysis of the electoral systems, party systems and governmental systems in the ethnic republics and regions of Russia. It also assesses the impact of these different institutional arrangements on democratization and federalism, moving the focus of research from the national level to the vitally important processes of institution building and democratization at the local level and to the study of federalism in Russia.

of prisoners of war [al-ikhtAr fC asCr] can only be taken by the executive or political authority [imAm] or by a subordinate authority appointed by the former authority [amCr mansEbin min jihati limAm]. This is something Muslims take so much for granted from the authority of our naql [scriptures] that none will reject it except those who act counter to their own ‘aql [intellect]. The most basic legal reason [‘illa aRliyya] is that this matter 9780719079740_C09.qxd 5/8/09 9:24 AM Page 259 Defending the transgressed 259 involves the public interest, and

in ‘War on terror’
Irish republican media activism since the Good Friday Agreement

Newspapers, magazines and pamphlets have always been central, almost sacred, forms of communication within Irish republican political culture. While social media is becoming the primary ideological battleground in many democracies, Irish republicanism steadfastly expresses itself in the traditional forms of activist journalism.

Shinners, Dissos and Dissenters is a long-term analysis of the development of Irish republican activist media since 1998 and the tumultuous years following the end of the Troubles. It is the first in-depth analysis of the newspapers, magazines and online spaces in which the differing strands of Irish republicanism developed and were articulated during a period where schism and dissent defined a return to violence.

Based on an analysis of Irish republican media outlets as well as interviews with the key activists that produced them, this book provides a compelling long-term snapshot of a political ideology in transition. It reveals how Irish Republicanism was moulded by the twin forces of the Northern Ireland Peace Process and the violent internal ideological schism that threatened a return to the ‘bad old days’ of the Troubles.

This book is vital for those studying Irish politics and those interestedin activism as it provides new insights into the role that modern activist media forms have played in the ideological development of a 200-year-old political tradition.

Executive versus legislative power

FAD7 10/17/2002 6:01 PM Page 122 7 Federalism and political asymmetry: executive versus legislative power As we have noted, political institutions are of crucial importance during transitions to democracy, and for Mainwaring, among all the choices of institutions ‘none is more important than the system of government: presidential, semipresidential, parliamentary or some hybrid’.1 There is now a general consensus in the literature that parliamentary systems are more stable than presidential ones and that it is much easier to consolidate democracy in

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
Regional elections and political parties

democracy has been further consolidated by a third round of regional elections conducted over the period 1999–2001. Manipulation of the electoral system However, the cynical nature in which President Yeltsin manipulated the election process in the regions has done much to damage the develop- FAD6 10/17/2002 5:45 PM Page 93 Regional elections and political parties 93 ment of a democratic political culture. Yeltsin’s victory over the parliamentarians signalled a victory of executive power over legislative power which eventually led to the development of a semi

in Federalism and democratisation in Russia
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Why do governments pass FOI laws?

Bill through the legislature. Other influential actors have a role in not stopping a law, as veto players who do not act (Berliner 2010). Lyndon Johnson stands out as the ultimate example; his negative actions, against his own political instincts, ‘saved’ the 1966 FOI Act. Survival hinges frequently on strengthening protections for government and weakening the power and scope of the law. Recurrent bargaining takes place over executive veto powers and the strength of particular exemptions, particularly over policy-making, all the way to tailor-made exclusions of

in The politics of freedom of information
Defeats, victories and new strategies

in Durham at the present time, and trusts there will be such improvements in the coming revision as will meet the desires of the workers of the County’.18 No prominent DFM activists spoke, though Lawson, as an executive member, was on the platform. ‘Trade union questions were now political questions’ 229 There was clearly some common ground between the DFM and the agents as well. The official ‘district meetings’ also addressed the political situation, and especially the need for Durham miners to support the new political fund, made necessary by the Trade Union

in The Great Labour Unrest
Open Access (free)
A reminder from the present

Ireland has been heralded as the beginning of the end of sectarian asperity. The creation of a powersharing executive and the endorsement of a pluralist accord has been upheld as an ‘exemplary constitutional design for an ethnonationally divided territory’.2 There have, of course, been positive political developments. David Trimble, the Ulster Unionist leader, has publicly accepted that ‘it is legitimate for nationalists to pursue their political objectives of a united Ireland’. Trimble has also stated that his party endorsed ‘the principles of inclusivity, equality and

in The end of Irish history?

Conservatives themselves would try this tactic again in April 1914; see Chapter 6.) Other developments in 1910, however, revealed that ILP activists had a wider battle still to fight regarding political action – that of convincing Durham miners to support the idea of having more parliamentary candidates. In January 1910, the lodges rejected a call for more MFGB-sponsored Labour candidates in Durham, with the executive arguing that lodges would carry the financial burden. The -1 The Eight Hours Act and the Eight Hours Agreement 131 issue of funding had become

in The Great Labour Unrest