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Nikolai Vukov

displacement during the 1920s.1 This chapter focuses on the circumstances of displacement, the reception and settlement of refugees, and the state’s attempts to address the political, economic and social shock of accepting thousands of refugees from the lost territories. It outlines the centrality of the refugee issue to the development of the modern Bulgarian state, particularly after the Balkan Wars when it occupied a central role both internally and externally.2 The chapter focuses on three main episodes: before 1912, when a quarter of a million refugees had already fled

in Europe on the move
Refugees and state building in Lithuania and Courland, 1914–21
Klaus Richter

Ost was politically marginalised and the Baltic German nobility in Latvia was deported. For the Jewish population in Lithuania, most of them urban, the war brought the most significant changes, reducing their share in the population by a half and irrevocably changing their social structure.1 The situation was similar in the province of Courland, the southernmost of the Baltic Provinces of the Russian Empire, covering roughly the southern half of today’s Latvia. Here, the population reduced from almost 800,000 to just 250,000 during the war. Even after the most

in Europe on the move
Abstract only
Refugees in Russia, 1914-18
Irina Belova

. Volkov put the total refugee population at 7.42 million in 1917, adding that ‘this figure is probably an under-estimate’.5 Most historical demographers concur. Only since the late 1990s have studies of refugees during the First World War appeared in Russia and in other countries on refugees. They include studies of the political, social, economic and cultural consequences of mass population displacement.6 This chapter contributes a discussion of refugees from Russia’s Western Front territories who reached the rear provinces of European Russia, namely Kaluga, Tula

in Europe on the move
Jonathan Colman

House mainly to secure political advantage at home. He also had little desire for ‘hot-line’ conversations, as he resented being put ‘on the spot’ over the telephone. But Wilson’s letters did not place him under pressure as did the more direct means of communication, and they were of growing interest to the President as US ties with Britain grew more problematic. The Prime Minister wrote thirty-one times in January–July 1966

in A ‘special relationship’?