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The Ocean group in East and Southeast Asia, c. 1945–73

Liverpool-based conglomerate was divorced or disconnected from influential business and political circles in London. Although, from the late 1920s, the Ocean directorate was increasingly selected from outside the Holt family, executive material was still sought from the top public schools and Oxbridge colleges. Such preference ensured that Blue Funnel executives were well-connected in Whitehall and Westminster. For

in The empire in one city?
The contest for ideology

I. WHO and uncontested Western medical paternalism Today it seems obvious that the health of the people is subject to political and ideological contests. Yet, throughout the first thirty years of the World Health Organization, Western or Westernised medical doctors controlled its knowledge and practices, and the nature of ‘world health’ went

in Western medicine as contested knowledge
The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa

expediencies of the state (Indian doctors were cheap, Indian doctors had an acceptable level of training). Rather, the decision to squeeze Indians out of government employment was tied to changing social and political pressures that influenced ideas about the way the colonial project should be conducted. As ideas of trusteeship advanced from the 1920s, it became increasingly appropriate to Africanise the

in Beyond the state

. The RCS prided itself on being able to accommodate political difference and stimulate informed debate. As Ruth Craggs has shown, those speaking at the society in the 1960s represented a much wider range of heritages, interests, and ideologies than they had in the 1940s and 1950s. 29 The increasing prominence of speakers such as Adu reinvigorated interest in the Commonwealth and stimulated new ideas of multiracial partnership and cooperation. The examples discussed in the following paragraphs confirm how important it is to move beyond the polarised stereotypes of

in British civic society at the end of empire
Crucial collaboration, hidden conflicts

Malekebu of the Providence Industrial Mission (PIM), a Malawian who had obtained his medical qualifications in the United States. Malekebu was viewed with some suspicion by the authorities, probably because his mission had been at the heart of the Chilembwe Rising in 1915. In 1927, Malekebu’s status as a mission doctor was considered by the highest levels of the colonial government, with the Executive Council

in Beyond the state

for mourning and a memorial to the victims of racism which originated in slave society. Significantly, it has been renamed in popular parlance the ‘Bussa’ statue after one of the key participants in the 1816 slave revolt, turning this commemoration of slavery into a celebration of black resistance. At Independence the complexion of the political, legal and judicial executive had become definitively and

in Empire and nation-building in the Caribbean

sensitive to the existing political structures, the British ruled Zanzibar as a protected Arab state, leaving the Sultan as constitutional head until 1913 (and indeed as a figurehead until independence in 1963). Furthermore, they adapted their administration to the existing hierarchies on the island by retaining the Arab ruling caste and by staffing the lower ranks of their administration with ‘mudirs

in Beyond the state
Missions, the colonial state and constructing a health system in colonial Tanganyika

Tanganyika similarly makes little reference to the mission hospitals, clinics and the doctors working there, seeing medicine and health services in the district as being determined by colonial state economic, social and political objectives. Where missions do appear in Turshen’s account, they are as adjuncts to and collaborators with the colonial state. No differences are seen between the colonial state and

in Beyond the state

before April 1840. For those who are not familiar with nineteenth-century British politics, what the government did in sending a fleet to China was not illegal or unconstitutional. The British Parliament did not make war or peace until modern times and the government, as the executive, did not need the approval of Parliament to start a war. Parliament, however, passed laws and voted taxes as the legislature. Although declaring and conducting war was an executive action, war always required high taxes so Parliament could subsequently make it easy or difficult for the

in Creating the Opium War
The intellectual influence of non-medical research on policy and practice in the Colonial Medical Service in Tanganyika and Uganda

technological mastery of the imperial scientist, and praised the power of the colonial state to transform communities, legitimised and facilitated by medical expertise. 1 These assertions and ambitions, however, were not always realised. Medical interventions were frequently shaped by racial or political rather than objective, scientific motivations, and their consequences could be destabilising rather than

in Beyond the state