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The Ocean group in East and Southeast Asia, c. 1945–73
Nicholas J. White

Liverpool-based conglomerate was divorced or disconnected from influential business and political circles in London. Although, from the late 1920s, the Ocean directorate was increasingly selected from outside the Holt family, executive material was still sought from the top public schools and Oxbridge colleges. Such preference ensured that Blue Funnel executives were well-connected in Whitehall and Westminster. For

in The empire in one city?
The contest for ideology
Sung Lee

I. WHO and uncontested Western medical paternalism Today it seems obvious that the health of the people is subject to political and ideological contests. Yet, throughout the first thirty years of the World Health Organization, Western or Westernised medical doctors controlled its knowledge and practices, and the nature of ‘world health’ went

in Western medicine as contested knowledge
Sultan Omar Ali and the quest for royal absolutism
Naimah S. Talib

granted internal self-government with the Sultan given a dominant role in politics. The Sultan was vested with extensive executive power and control over a partially elected legislature. Britain would retain jurisdiction over defence, external relations and internal security. 27 The administrative ties with Sarawak were severed, and the High Commissioner of Brunei now had no formal executive role in the administration. The Sultan’s success in gaining concessions from the British could be attributed to the formation in 1956 of a political party, the Parti Rakyat

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
Regal ministers of eclipsed empires in India
Priya Naik

to achieving what Winston Churchill imagined to be ‘India, Pakistan and Princestan’. 3 Although they almost crossed the line into independent India, the disparity in power between these hundreds of states, as well as regionalism and the sheer inability to modernise, got the better of them. Their political rival, the Indian National Congress, pronounced their death even while they were alive and thriving, with Jawaharlal Nehru declaring, ‘I am no believer in kings and princes’. While quite a few had undertaken the task of building obvious markers of modernity such

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
Yogyakarta during the Indonesian decolonisation, 1942–50
Bayu Dardias Kurniadi

authorities were relics of the past in a fast-changing political structure. In short, the monarchies received a double blow, having failed at the national level during the formation of the state, and at the provincial level of government, in the formation of the temporary governing body, the Indonesian National Committee (KNI). The KNI was formed on 22 August, and the nationalists established its Yogyakarta chapter, KNID-Yogyakarta, 38 in the early weeks of independence, without prior consultation with the sultan. KNID-Yogyakarta assumed executive, legislative and

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia
The short history of Indian doctors in the Colonial Medical Service, British East Africa
Anna Greenwood and Harshad Topiwala

expediencies of the state (Indian doctors were cheap, Indian doctors had an acceptable level of training). Rather, the decision to squeeze Indians out of government employment was tied to changing social and political pressures that influenced ideas about the way the colonial project should be conducted. As ideas of trusteeship advanced from the 1920s, it became increasingly appropriate to Africanise the

in Beyond the state
Anna Bocking-Welch

. The RCS prided itself on being able to accommodate political difference and stimulate informed debate. As Ruth Craggs has shown, those speaking at the society in the 1960s represented a much wider range of heritages, interests, and ideologies than they had in the 1940s and 1950s. 29 The increasing prominence of speakers such as Adu reinvigorated interest in the Commonwealth and stimulated new ideas of multiracial partnership and cooperation. The examples discussed in the following paragraphs confirm how important it is to move beyond the polarised stereotypes of

in British civic society at the end of empire
Crucial collaboration, hidden conflicts
Markku Hokkanen

Malekebu of the Providence Industrial Mission (PIM), a Malawian who had obtained his medical qualifications in the United States. Malekebu was viewed with some suspicion by the authorities, probably because his mission had been at the heart of the Chilembwe Rising in 1915. In 1927, Malekebu’s status as a mission doctor was considered by the highest levels of the colonial government, with the Executive Council

in Beyond the state
Anna Greenwood

sensitive to the existing political structures, the British ruled Zanzibar as a protected Arab state, leaving the Sultan as constitutional head until 1913 (and indeed as a figurehead until independence in 1963). Furthermore, they adapted their administration to the existing hierarchies on the island by retaining the Arab ruling caste and by staffing the lower ranks of their administration with ‘mudirs

in Beyond the state
Mark Hampton

political overtones’ would be much less likely to provoke a PRC reaction, particularly since Hong Kong and the Chinese government had previously cooperated concerning water supply issues. Moreover, a recent visit by Princess Margaret (in March 1966) had not antagonised Beijing. Trench acknowledged that ‘some dangers will remain, and Chinese attitudes can certainly never be predicted with entire confidence so far ahead’. He emphasised that such a visit would help improve Hong Kong people’s attitudes towards the United Kingdom – ‘feelings which are not as warm as they might

in Monarchies and decolonisation in Asia