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Fabrice Weissman

, which may describe the horrendous conditions in which the hostages are being held and the payment of ransom to criminal and political networks ( Callimachi, 2014a , 2014b ; Kiser, 2013 ). In the end, vital information about the abductions remains the monopoly of the political and criminal networks carrying them out, the aid-organisation crisis units handling them, the private security firms advising them and the intelligence services observing them. Keeping the public and aid workers

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Mel Bunce

disinformation. But they have not yet closely examined their impact in humanitarian crises. This is a remarkable oversight. In humanitarian crises, false information can have life-and-death consequences. As Jeanne Bourgault, President and Chief Executive Officer of Internews, states, false information can ‘undercut efforts to improve health, make disasters worse than they already are, alienate vulnerable populations, and even incite violence’ (quoted in Igoe, 2017 ). This article introduces the emerging research about online disinformation and the many forms it

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
Matthew Hunt, Sharon O’Brien, Patrick Cadwell and Dónal P. O’Mathúna

: geographic distances as national or international responders travel to a locale experiencing crisis, but also social, cultural, political and narrative distances due to the vastly divergent experiences of people caught up in crises. A key challenge for humanitarian ethics is to take account both of the steep asymmetries between those seeking to provide assistance (though not always succeeding) and others who require help due to a crisis, and the

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs
The external dynamics
Mary C. Murphy

secure favourable outcomes. The executive and advisory functions, which are variously exercised by bodies such as the NSMC and BIC, provide different institutions with varying capacities to meet Northern Ireland’s primary interests vis-à-vis the EU. But has Northern Ireland fully harnessed these opportunities to connect with the rest of the UK, Ireland and Brussels? Political 132 Northern Ireland and the European Union problems related to the consociational nature of the devolved political system and lingering party tensions have sporadically afflicted the operation

in Northern Ireland and the European Union
The policy dynamics
Mary C. Murphy

and executive authority on the Northern Ireland devolved administration. The production of different policy outputs for Northern Ireland is conceivable under the terms of the devolved settlement. Furthermore, the exercise of this authority is to be based on cross-community decision-making processes which enjoy heightened legitimacy and achieve higher degrees of regional political accountability. Northern Ireland’s interrupted experience of devolution, particularly from 2002 to 2007 curtailed policy development, outputs and achievements. However, even taking its

in Northern Ireland and the European Union
Nora Siklodi

’s executive, the European Commission, tends to approach European identity. The EU and its declarations on European identity/ies European identity has been an integral part of European integration and EU policy making ever since discussions about a possible EU-level democracy emerged (Stråth, 2002). Owing to the very definition of democracy – government by the people – a common sense of identity among these people has been observed as a prerequisite for the (effective) functioning of any Defining contemporary European identity/ies 29 political community (Isin and Turner

in The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood
Abstract only
Ahmad H. Sa’di

families substantial economic benefits and offers them improved educational and employment opportunities (Jiryis, 1971:66–7; Kretzmer, 1987). Such laws were frequently passed to supplement the restrictions which had already been put in place by the Emergency Regulations. The Palestinians as a mosaic of insular minorities After the affirmation of the basic Jewish–Palestinian binary, the subdivision of the Palestinians ensued. Already in 1920, ‘the Intelligence Office’ of the Zionist Executive’s political department in Palestine laid down a plan to manipulate the

in Thorough surveillance
Challenges and opportunities

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.

Dermot Ahern

Agreement and the Northern Ireland Act of 1998, seemed to be faltering. The Northern Ireland Assembly and the Executive had been suspended twice, the first time on 11 February 2001, and then again on 14 October 2002. There were two significant developments, however. On 26 September 2005, the Independent International Commission on Decommissioning confirmed that the IRA had put its armoury beyond use, the last of four acts of decommissioning which had begun in October 2001. In politics, a series of Assembly and Westminster elections saw power shift on the Unionist side

in Peacemaking in the twenty-first century
The internal dynamics
Mary C. Murphy

possibilities implicit in the new arrangements. The new Northern Ireland administrative landscape Immediately after the devolution of power in 1999, the newly created Northern Ireland Executive replaced the six direct-rule government departments with ten new government departments and a central department, the OFMDFM. In 2010, the Department of Justice was created after the eventual achievement of political agreement on the devolution of policing and justice powers (see Table 5.1). Much political wrangling has accompanied the determination of new Northern Ireland

in Northern Ireland and the European Union