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Luhmann’s periodization of the emergence of modern functionally differentiated social systems).9 Rather than trying to discover the biology of politics, or the politics of biology, Foucault argued that one should study the historical development and deployment of multiple strategies and technologies for the political administration of biological life as normalized phenomena. For Foucault, biopolitics came to mean a new form of political power (added to his famous though fuzzy typology of sovereign power, pastoral power and disciplinary power),10 the object of which is

in Human remains and mass violence
Open Access (free)
Crossing borders, changing times

Introduction: crossing borders, changing times Madeleine Hurd, Hastings Donnan and Carolin Leutloff-Grandits This book explores how crossing borders entails shifting time as well as geographical location. Spaces may be bordered by both territory and time: in spatial practices, memories and narratives, and in the hopes and fears that anchor an imagined community’s history to a given (imagined) territory. Those who cross borders must, therefore, negotiate not only the borders themselves, but the practices, memories and narratives that differentiate and define the

in Migrating borders and moving times
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Centralising emotions in football fandom

seen as the apotheosis of humanity and differentiates humans from other animals. In contrast, emotion has been viewed negatively and radically distinct from reason (Lutz, 1986; Damasio, 1994; Barbalet, 1998; Shilling, 2002). Western thinkers have negated the role of the body (Shilling, 1991; Solomon, 1993), yet the body can retain historical memories of emotional trauma (van der Kolk, 2014). In Europe there was a transition in the early nineteenth century to a secular vernacular describing ‘emotions’, rather than the more religious ‘passions’ (Solomon, 1993; Dixon

in Ultras

cycled around before the next set of chants is started. This gives the performers the opportunity to practise and perfect each new chant before moving on. Big matches are never used for dry runs; new songs are tested out at smaller matches in preparation for the derbies or big games. It is within the physical participation of the ritual that the group becomes formed. It is important to note that the rituals do not have to be ‘for’ something; they are ‘neither substantive nor functional’ as Rappaport (1999: 26) states. But football rituals are a public DOIDGE

in Ultras

imaginaries of work, value, power and technology in manifold ways. In June 2014, the Github ‘about’ page showed a photo of a women working in an urban office location, with lights and professional camera focused on her work. It described ‘6.1 million people collaborating right now across 13.2 million repositories … building amazing things together’ (Github 2014). In late November 2015, the same page had a slightly more functional description, and the image seems to be of a crowded press conference in China: GitHub is how people build software. With a community of more than

in Ethnography for a data-saturated world