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which, de Lumley observes, served any functional purpose alone but which together suggest primitive aesthetic sensibilities: ‘Hominisation thus passed a new threshold in the path towards greater complexity: the emergence of the sense of harmony.’8 In like fashion, beyond its purpose in cooking food and thus irrevocably changing the hominid diet and all that followed, the discovery of fire had other multiple effects, from providing light and warmth and facilitating migration to colder parts of the world, to the use of fire in hardening spear-points. However, de Lumley

in The extended self

those biological rules which govern the life of all the other organisms. Yet in the human world we find a new characteristic which appears to be a distinctive mark of human life. The functional circle of man is not only quantitatively enlarged; it has also undergone a qualitative change. Man has, as it were, discovered a new method of adapting himself to his environment. Between the receptor system and the effector system, which are to be found in all animal species, we find in man a third link which we may describe as the symbolic system. This new acquisition

in The extended self

terms, often singles out a common feature of photography (‘political’, for example) and turns it into a qualification of one particular type of photographs. Elsewhere, I have discussed the migration of the category ‘political’ from functioning as an ontological account of being with others, into an adjective describing particular photographs (Azoulay 2012a). Here I dwell on the category of the ‘vernacular’, since its association with language and its differentiation from another language –​‘lingua franca’ –​can be of help to illuminate a genuine problematic in the

in Image operations
Abstract only

differentiation between body parts and their distinct functionality. Bichat believed that a set of distinct tissues constituted the basic elements of the human body, comparable to the thirty-three elements of chemistry that Sensitive limit Lavoisier had distinguished in his Traité élémentaire de chimie of 1789.66 This theory of elementary tissues was, later in the nineteenth century, replaced by cellular theory, which considered the cell as the basic unit of living beings, but it still earned Bichat the reputation of being the founder of histology (the discipline concerned

in Fleshing out surfaces
Abstract only

case, or the ‘Great American Dream’ in the latter. In either case, the dwelling type and the dream are basically alike, which says much for the similarity between the two cultures. Even the most ordinary suburban home can evoke strong responses in its present or former occupants, whatever the building looks like, so long as it has the requisite features of the type: functional and comfortable rooms sufficient for all the family; a substantial garden or backyard, a garage and so on (fig. 1.3). In her essay ‘The House as Symbol of the Self,’ Clare Cooper6 finds a

in The extended self
Abstract only

ideal, but one that is objective to the extent that it endows art with the ontological status of reality, displacing the empirical world of experience. In short, the ideal is conceived as more real than reality itself. I consider the ‘painterly real’, taken as a structural support for art, as an ideal that underlies autonomous art as differentiated from other spheres of productive social activity. The ‘painterly real’ as a structural support for the Introduction ideal has been constituted as such in a historical process. This constitutive process has evolved

in The political aesthetics of the Armenian avant-garde

all these moving things can be “co-workers” of the proletarian: “The Thing became something functional and active, connected like a co-worker with human practice. Mechanization + dynamization led to the machine-ization of the thing, to its transformation into a working instrument.”9 The worker establishes a “systematically regulated dynamism” of things.10 The dynamic home A Soviet official and a madman; GosPlan and the mental hospital. Strumilin and Arvatov clearly had a common understanding of the environment as an object-assemblage.They also shared an interest in

in Modernism and the making of the Soviet New Man

decades of Dutch rule in Indonesia and with the rise of photography not only as a mass print medium, but also as an amateur pursuit that enabled a larger number of people than ever before in history to create autobiographical archives, replete with interpretations of how ordinary lives intersected with major historical events. Mass and popular photography coexisted for the first time in this period with older forms such as studio photography, and with increasingly specialist modes of photography for academic and scientific purposes. The profuse functional

in Photographic subjects
The conceptual horizons of the avant-garde in Armenia

contemporary as a global historical condition: differential, gradual, ruptural and anachronistic. If the differential approach implies a theory of history in which the contemporary is differentiated from the modern as well as being internally differentiated, the gradual approach considers contemporaneity as having arrived through gradual changes within the modern. The ruptural notion of contemporaneity considers it as a historical (and often a post-historical) stage that is fundamentally different from what preceded it and is marked by a punctual moment of rupture. The

in The political aesthetics of the Armenian avant-garde
ACT’s procedures of ‘pure creation’, 1993–96

’s installation of outmoded furniture and old photographs (‘too personal to explain’)54 the exhibition presented an aesthetic coherence unheard of in the 3rd Floor’s events. In addition, the exhibition established a different idea of the new than the 3rd Floor aimed to achieve. If, for the 3rd Floor, the function of the new was to establish a qualitatively conceived temporal differentiation between National Modernism, Armenian Socialist Realism and contemporary art, for the young artists of the 1990s generation the new was both a temporal and a spatial notion. The ‘new’ in the

in The political aesthetics of the Armenian avant-garde