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Humanitarianism in a Post-Liberal World Order

, 1990 : 11). When faced with Trump, Xi Jinping, Orban, Erdogan, Putin, Assad, Duterte, non-liberals all, how can the argument for neutrality be successful? They see opponents not as legitimate competitors protected by a set of institutional rules that limit the scope of conflict but as threats to be eliminated. Chantal Mouffe differentiates ‘the political’ from ‘politics’: the political is the sphere of existential conflict over the nature of the state where the most basic institutions of the system itself are fought over ( Mouffe, 2005 : chap

Journal of Humanitarian Affairs

understand how conflict can be a symptom, two things have to be noted. First, conflict is endemic, and, second, functional conflicts can be differentiated from dysfunctional ones, or, at least, the functional value of conflict can be differentiated from its dysfunctional consequences. Conflict can have, for example, group-binding, group-preserving and internal cohesion increasing functions. Since conflicts

in Culture and international conflict resolution
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The EU and the governance of European security

European security are likely to be perpetrated by nonstate actors in the service of objectives not readily recognisable by international relations scholars. Nonetheless, only the state can discharge the important functional role of responding to these disparate security threats. In that sense the state remains alive and well, yet its ability to discharge its security function has been severely compromised

in EU security governance

apparent decline or at least underwent a reinterpretation to the advantage of sovereignty. This ‘de-construction’ was, in the first instance, a result of the interaction of state leaders. Over time the competition and insecurity natural in a states system, particularly where regimes were vulnerable to trans-state subversion, reinforced the territorial differentiation between the individual states; moreover, from the beginning, those states whose sovereignty was threatened by Nasser’s attempt to impose Pan-Arab uniformity formed anti-hegemonic alliances against Cairo

in The international politics of the Middle East

differentiates action from act. The term ‘action’ means human conduct devised by the actor in advance, that is, conduct based on a preconceived project. The term ‘act’ designates the outcome of the ongoing process, the accomplished action. Action, or performance, as Schütz also calls it, may be covert or overt. By ‘working’ he means overt actions which require bodily movements and which aim at changing the

in Culture and international conflict resolution
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The problématique of culture in international conflict analysis

international relations should be on transactions instead of states. Similarly, he has paid attention to functional cooperation as a tool of adaptation to changing international circumstances. This book examines Burton’s conflict and conflict resolution theory and its relation to his human needs theory. It is demonstrated that taking sociobiologically based human needs as a starting-point for conflict theory

in Culture and international conflict resolution

that readily impinges on people’s lives in any real functional sense. The near universal acceptance of an explanation of the conflict in terms of a given understanding or misunderstanding of reality does not in itself give rise to political change that can lead to the resolution of conflict. What goes on in people’s heads at an intellectual level, no matter how ‘right’ we get it, is neither a

in Socio-ideological fantasy and the Northern Ireland conflict
Water scarcity, the 1980s’ Palestinian uprising and implications for peace

“water wars” ’ ( Gannon, 2000 : 6). Environmental security scholars must be precise about what they are explaining, about causal relations, and in defining key concepts. This section differentiates between domestic and international water conflicts, explains the causal relationship between water scarcity and conflict, and clearly defines the terms ‘violent water conflict’ and ‘environmental scarcity

in Redefining security in the Middle East

enhanced understanding for willingness to compromise in facilitated problem-solving workshops. It pays attention to the conditions that lead to cooperation or competition and their relation to the outcomes of mediation processes. 13 The traditional approaches to third-party intermediary intervention discuss third-party roles, functions, qualities and resources. The theorising is influenced by the system-functional

in Culture and international conflict resolution

themselves memory-individuals’ (Nora 1989: 16). Such memory is simply self-affirmation. He refers to this as duty-memory, which is inextricably linked with archive- memory. Lieux de mémoire can be material, symbolic or functional – even an apparently functional site like an archive or a schoolbook becomes a lieu de mémoire if the imagination invests it with a symbolic aura. While lieux de mémoire come in various shapes, their materiality is what counts – ‘memory attaches itself to sites, whereas history attaches itself to events’ (Nora 1989: 22). However Nora is very clear

in Co-memory and melancholia