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convents in England came from France. This was not simply due to antireligious sentiment in France. Despite the political vicissitudes, persecution of religious institutes in nineteenth-century France did not reach the extremes of the French Revolution. Active, simple-vowed congregations, unlike contemplative orders, were considered productive entities by French civil administrations, and despite the fervent Catholicism of their members, many congregations remained functional in France.17 French foundations were numerous for other reasons also. Catholic connections to

in Contested identities