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, stronger and brighter than its predecessors. This constitutes a significant departure from Baudrillard’s brief acknowledgement of the possibility of minimal differentiation. The second film sets up a potential clash between the possible differentiation between elements of a sequence and the overarching model of functionality, in which all the variant forms fulfil a single purpose. This problem is explicitly played out with reference to Trinity whose death appears to be a necessary part of her function as the lover of The One. Trinity’s death takes the form of both a

in Adapting philosophy
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The princess and the post-’68 fairy tale

way: ‘The camera manages to make the landscape at once functional to plot and the characters’ moods and “irrelevantly” beautiful, worthy of aesthetic contemplation in its own right. It remains a positive visual force’. As Chatman shows, the alienated characters of L’avventura may not themselves register the beauty of the landscape within which they are framed, but the repeated use of long shot

in From perversion to purity
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traditional model of economic-materialistic Marxism. By adding autonomy to the superstructures, Althusser took a major step from the original Marxist definition of the term ‘superstructure’. 16 Althusser’s theory enables film critics to address how ideology operates historically in its functional relation with the economic, political and cultural aspects of class society. His theory of ideology has indirectly helped to thrust political film studies into

in Contemporary Korean cinema

-Stevens’ Villa Noailles. Finally, on the second floor are two portholes, which unbalance the building and look incongruous relative to the vertical rectangular windows of the ground floor, and which become the basis of a gag that allows Tati to mock the building: when Monsieur and Madame Arpel look out of them at night, their silhouettes make the round windows look like eyes with moving pupils. Rather than expressing a coherent functional or aesthetic rationale, the Arpels’ house seems more like a bricolage of improperly understood stylistic elements associated with 1920s

in Screening the Paris suburbs
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Welcome and La Graine et le mulet

, English is spoken in the film mostly within the borders of the French nation rather than beyond them, even becoming more functional and useful to the film’s characters than French. In addition, in Bilal’s initial inquiries of fellow clandestine migrants and dealings with people smugglers, the typically marginal Middle Eastern tongue of Kurdish is of more use to him in negotiating his passage than either English or French. The various social spheres which make up the Calais-based narrative of Welcome, from the public streets of the port where Marion runs MUP

in Decentring France

especially marked influence on the British cinema of the 1960s in particular. Terms such as ‘runaway’, ‘international’, and ‘mid-Atlantic’, were used to differentiate such films from orthodox indigenous productions, reflecting something of their economic sources, something of the geographical location of their physical production, and something of the cultural consequences of their American provenance. ‘Mid-Atlantic’, in particular, became a term of critical abuse, embodying the notion of a cinema of uncertain cultural identity, a characterisation of British cinema which

in Anthony Asquith

bilingual world where Mexicans sing to each other in Spanish, yet talk to each other in English. As Dirk Delabastita and Rainier Grutman ( 2005 : 17) note, ‘the actual quantity of foreignisms in a text is rather less important than the qualitative role they play with its overstructure, i.e. their potential as functional elements’. In Frida the traces of spoken Spanish, along with the language of the song

in Screening songs in Hispanic and Lusophone cinema
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Spanish cultural production. In recent years film scholars have emphasised the insufficiencies of clear-cut differentiations between genres. Rick Altman’s historical enquiries articulate the mixed origin of widely accepted genre categorisations, such as the western or the musical, and the a posteriori inclusion of films into a generic corpus once the formal and thematic characteristic have been stabilised, while Steve Neale

in Contemporary Spanish cinema and genre
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Horror acting in the 1970s British television drama

, the 1970s now seems technically rudimentary: visual effects are highly simplistic compared with modern CGI technology; the camerawork seems conservative with a typically motionless camera employing long-and mid-shots and few close-ups; and the editing employs a functional rather than artistic purpose. The consequence of these limitations means a foregrounding of performers and their craft. 1970s television horror drama permits and

in Genre and performance

, namely the experience of male fraternity, the notion of women as sexual predators, and the banality and functionality of sexual activity. In other ways, Calmos is an interesting example of just how far Blier misjudged the public mood in 1975: the graphic images of nudity and the depiction of sexual hysteria on the part of numerous female protagonists was perhaps inevitably read as an attack on contemporary political trends rather

in Bertrand Blier