Search results

You are looking at 1 - 10 of 15 items for :

  • functional differentiation x
  • Manchester History of Medicine x
Clear All
Stephen T. Casper

of society. There was in his argument a proliferation of analogies between the necessary complexity of the social organisation of medicine and the ultimate evolutionary organisation of the nervous system. Drawing through analogy on Herbert Spencer’s (1820–1903) theories of cultural and social evolution, Jackson argued that the division of labour was a ‘universal law’.21 He was therefore able to join differentiation, complexity, progressing evolution, definiteness, and integration in the nervous system of organisms – all Spencerian concepts – with views that

in The neurologists
Shaun T. O’Keeffe

model towards a social and human rights model of disability. The social model differentiates ‘impairment from dependency ­… [i]t refers to the possibility that dependency is created through social forces and social structures impacting on the ability of older people to take control of their own lives’ (Murphy et al., 2007). As well as decision-­making barriers, experiences shared by older people and people with disabilities include the barriers to living independently and being excluded from society (Council of Europe, 2013). In a study on the quality of life of older

in Ethical and legal debates in Irish healthcare
Stephen T. Casper

semiological status of the clinical neurology exam. The rise of scanning technologies made the formerly invisible confines of the patient’s nervous system startlingly observable to neurologists, neurosurgeons, ophthalmologists, and psychiatrists. Indeed, with the rise of functional imaging, evolutionary psychologists, behavioural psychiatrists, and neurologists saw a potential solution to neurology’s hard problems – the question of mind and brain, holism and the cortical localisation of function, and dualism or monism –in the making.16 The cost, however, Neurologists

in The neurologists
Abstract only
From physician to neurologist
Stephen T. Casper

diseases resided within particular ‘tissues’.62 By the mid-nineteenth century, the work of Matthias Schlieden (1804–81), Theodor Schwann (1810–82), Rudolf Virchow (1821–1902), and others had shifted the site of disease pathology from tissues to cells, the discrete unit of physiological function.63 Did the nervous system comprise these discrete units? No one was sure at the beginning of the nineteenth century. Charles Bell had noted that ‘papilla’ on the tongue could detect one stimulus alone – taste or pressure.64 Such a functional observation combined with Marshall Hall

in The neurologists
Abstract only
Entrails and digestion in the eighteenth century
Rebecca Anne Barr, Sylvie Kleiman-Lafon and Sophie Vasset

knowledge, the living and functional organism continued to elude complete comprehension. Building on his earlier work, Miller suggests that the changing understanding of digestion ‘encouraged deep anxieties to form around the gut’ and that these concerns produced and ‘underpinned a new set of therapeutic regimes designed to safeguard both dietary and bodily health’. The dethroning of the stomach in the bodily economy occurred slowly across the century, and Galenic, humoral understandings of the intestine co-existed with vitalism and iatrochemistry. A host of ‘profound

in Bellies, bowels and entrails in the eighteenth century
Interpreting ‘patented’ aids to the deaf in Victorian Britain
Graeme Gooday and Karen Sayer

communication with others. But, judging from her own anecdote above, not all needed such encouragement; the problem was rather that many assumed that they could buy an appropriate hearing aid as readily as a pair of spectacles without any professional advice on the circumstances of their particular form of hearing loss.1 28 28 Rethinking modern prostheses We show that the often fraught experiences of acquiring and using a h­ earing aid necessitate a sensitively differentiated understanding of this apparently simple commercial transaction. Only some used hearing trumpets

in Rethinking modern prostheses in Anglo-American commodity cultures, 1820–1939
Abstract only
War and medicine in World War I Germany
Heather R. Perry

rationalisation of patients, disease, and health care in the increasingly bureaucratised nation-state of the nineteenth century. Specialisation might be usefully contrasted with professionalisation, which was a process occurring at roughly the same time and which was driven by the desire of trained, academic elites to distance themselves from lay competitors. Unlike professionalisation, however, specialisation was largely a competition between trained elites trying to differentiate themselves from one another and establish their expertise in particular medical fields.48

in Recycling the disabled
Vanessa Heggie

physical characteristics, as an article in the British Medical Journal (1938) suggests: The aim … of the present campaign for physical fitness is … to achieve a harmony of motion, a grace of carriage, a pride of body, a mental concentration and quickness of reactions, and a happiness and contentment which characterise the really fit. 116 Other sources tended towards the more functional aspects of fitness, as a summary article in the Annual Review of Physiology (1946) makes clear: the fit man shows: lower oxygen consumption; slower pulse rate during

in A history of British sports medicine
Politics, reform and the demise of medico-gentility
Michael Brown

of the authority credited to them as the heads of an institutional ‘household’, the physician, Charles Best, and his assistant, the apothecary, Charles Atkinson, were held accountable for all matters relating to the physical, moral and mental wellbeing of the patients. It is these matters, as opposed to the functional aspects of administration, which I include under the term ‘medical space’. As Mather’s comments suggest, for contemporary medical practitioners the issues of authority, public identity and social reputation were inextricably intertwined (even within

in Performing medicine
Abstract only
Noses on sale
Emily Cock

to a sundial without a gnomon (the protruding arm that casts a shadow), Pulter incorporates both the symbolic and functional importance of the nose. The invocation of the nose during the civil wars was also a common point for mockery of Oliver Cromwell. Cromwell's large, red nose became the butt of many Royalist jokes in the middle of the seventeenth century, forming – Laura Lunger Knoppers argues – a key part in the construction of his body as a grotesque counterpoint to the idealised, courtly body of Charles I as martyr-king. Such satires highlighted Cromwell

in Rhinoplasty and the nose in early modern British medicine and culture