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convents in England came from France. This was not simply due to antireligious sentiment in France. Despite the political vicissitudes, persecution of religious institutes in nineteenth-century France did not reach the extremes of the French Revolution. Active, simple-vowed congregations, unlike contemplative orders, were considered productive entities by French civil administrations, and despite the fervent Catholicism of their members, many congregations remained functional in France.17 French foundations were numerous for other reasons also. Catholic connections to

in Contested identities

. It is this mind/soul, whose existence is immortal, however, that constitutes for Descartes the essence of a person’s being. ‘I can infer correctly that my essence consists solely in the fact that I am a thinking thing’ (1984: 54). This last quotation is from the Sixth Meditation where Descartes elaborates at some length on both a mind/body interaction and the distinction between them. This builds on a differentiation he has made in the Fifth Meditation between innate ideas – such as that of God’s existence – and sensory experiences (1984: 44–6). The innate idea of

in Divine love

the development of practical hagiography came with the formation of the pious community at Clapham from the 1790s. Collective action by the group created a collective reputation and an enlarged sphere of influence, but also increasingly specialised reputations, based on each member’s functional contributions. Henry Thornton (1760–1815), for example, felt that he could be most ‘useful’ to his friends and country by coupling his banking experience and thinking in political economy with leadership in parliamentary select committees on economic matters, most notably the

in Making and remaking saints in nineteenth-century Britain
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constructed in terms of one another. Andrea Cornwall and Nancy Lindisfarne have criticised the relational concept of gender on the basis that it is too narrow to admit of possibilities other than simple male–female difference. We agree with this view, and our understanding of gender incorporates those possibilities, including hierarchical differentiation within genders.The relational concept,nevertheless,is the core of our concept

in Male witches in early modern Europe
Samuel Clarke and the Trinity

Chapter 3 Philosophy-lectures or the Sermon on the Mount: Samuel Clarke and the Trinity C hristianity differentiates itself from other Western monotheisms in holding that God took human form and died to atone for human sins. Belief in Jesus Christ’s atoning sacrifice is essential to salvation: ‘He that believeth on him is not condemned: but he that believeth not is condemned already, because he hath not believed in the name of the only begotten Son of God’ (John 3:18). Yet precisely what it meant to be ‘the only begotten Son of God’ was a question which

in Reformation without end

visited England on sporadic occasions. 26 In a similar vein, David Kahn, Director of the Brooklyn Historical Society, pointed out how in the permanent exhibition in this New York suburb ‘we state that black people have lived in Brooklyn since the seventeenth century, the earliest period of European settlement. Functionally, that piece of information serves the same purpose as the statement in the Museum of London’s Peopling exhibition that blacks have lived in London since the early sixteenth century.’ Kahn’s hopes for the impact of such

in Anglo-Jewry since 1066

-hunters. Originally, perhaps, these several different species of night-travelers, the lamiae and the bonae res, had been relatively distinct. It is also possible that both destructive strigae and more benign spirits were once logical counterparts within a more comprehensive system of belief, much as the benandanti appear to have had the malandanti as their perpetual foes. Among learned clerics, Stephen of Bourbon taught that while strigae and the bonae res were equally imaginary, they were otherwise well differentiated: strigae rode wolves at night and killed children, but the

in The Malleus Maleficarum and the construction of witchcraft
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Three Advent Sunday sermons

differentiating the two: Pater enim mittit appropriate loquendo wit a selli miht, Filius wit a semli riht, Spiritus sanctus wyt a seli lyht. Et correspondenter his venit Filius primo onto mans kynd, secundo onto mans mind, tercio onto the demyng.15 The transition between Latin and Middle English is immediate. It preserves the rhyming of the English (miht, riht, lyht) alongside the religious terminology and the logical conjunctions of the Latin (Pater, Filius, Spiritus sanctus; correspondenter). In the past scholars saw in these sermons evidence for a decline of priestly

in Approaching the Bible in medieval England

’s educational system in terms of structure and educational content. The relationship between society and religion may partake both of the theory of functionality and that of conflict.1 After the founding of the Irish Free State in 1922, the Catholic religion could be perceived as an element of social cohesion in a society that tended to see itself as essentially homogeneous: the educational system could be considered as both reflecting and transmitting this. At the same time, the parallel networks of Anglican, Presbyterian and Methodist schools that had developed in the

in Schools and the politics of religion and diversity in the Republic of Ireland
The claim of reason

for such a performance? Here, I suggest that we can helpfully learn from literary and aesthetic insights into the melodramatic genre. The affordances of melodrama In his widely read essay about the Balinese cockfight, Clifford Geertz (1993) interpreted this melodrama not as a functional affirmation of social hierarchies in Balinese society, but rather as a source of interpretive meta-​commentary or, as Geertz puts it, ‘a story they tell themselves about themselves’ (ibid.: 448). For Robin Wagner-​Pacifici (1986) and Peter Brooks (1995), melodrama as a social

in Tragic encounters and ordinary ethics