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decades of Dutch rule in Indonesia and with the rise of photography not only as a mass print medium, but also as an amateur pursuit that enabled a larger number of people than ever before in history to create autobiographical archives, replete with interpretations of how ordinary lives intersected with major historical events. Mass and popular photography coexisted for the first time in this period with older forms such as studio photography, and with increasingly specialist modes of photography for academic and scientific purposes. The profuse functional

in Photographic subjects
A case study in colonial Bildungskarikatur

, and its definitions intelligibly identified as restrictive, promiscuous, or adequate, only in relation to particular critical projects and ends. Genre, then, is important as a functional model – one that does the work of ideological negotiation – rather than simply a taxonomic one. In the particular case of Bildungsroman , despite a long history of definitional debates, a core set of conceptual concerns has characterised theorisations of the genre from the introduction of the term. Although popularised by Wilhelm Dilthey, initially in his

in Comic empires

provided not by the original text but by the narrative reinvention of the moral message through popular texts, or popular images, including nianhua . 7 As this text indicates, nianhua played a functional role in fostering moral ideals under the Qing Dynasty (1644–1911). The nianhua in Figure 6.1 , for example, first published under the Kangxi Regime (1661–1722), features two officials carrying a

in Comic empires
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and imperialism. The intent, then , was to use historical stories to produce loyal and obedient citizens, proud of their nation and its history, keen to contribute to its continued wellbeing and actively aware of the requirements and rewards of citizenship. In her Millennium Lecture, Linda Colley differentiated between citizenship (‘which is political and functional’) and identity (‘which is more

in Citizenship, Nation, Empire
Colonial transformations and a governmental event

differentiated colonialisms within a diffuse but cohesive empire, and also to disaggregate each nation or colony by remaining alert to the distinct spaces that comprised the larger polity or territory. Just as Lagos was distinct from Bornu, the Ormiston River was not Melbourne. The production and expropriation of value, after all, was historically contingent and thus necessarily differed markedly across space and time. This book traces this heterogeneity through a study of indirect rule, placing a differentiated empire within a unified field of analysis. It

in Governing natives
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–invader relations. 17 In elaborating the interactions between colonial practitioners and sentient creatures, Venomous encounters suggests that animals themselves structured scientific inquiry and its application to emergent debates in functional anatomy, germ theory, experimental physiology and immunology. In particular, it disrupts the smooth teleological narrative of biomedical modernity: that vivisection

in Venomous encounters
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Folk therapeutics and ‘English’ medicine in Rajasthan

sometimes attributed to heating doses of English medicine that were taken months or years previously. The clear implication behind such views, while rarely explicitly asserted, is that English medicine, though functionally effective, is essentially maladaptive to the environmental conditions of local life. A student who helped me as an interpreter on visits to the shop of an indigenous pharmacist

in Western medicine as contested knowledge
From the Howardian model to garden housing estates

Prost, pioneers in rational urbanism, recommended its use. Forestier and Prost proposed functional and morphologically welldesigned zoning plans, all the while bearing in mind the important role of sanitary considerations in the planning of the future city alongside the quality of the urban landscape – that is, public health considerations went side by side with

in Garden cities and colonial planning
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Satadru Sen

and identity in colonial India and imperial Britain in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It is not a biography of Ranjitsinhji. Several functional biographies already exist. The most significant is Roland Wild’s authorized biography, published soon after Ranjitsinhji’s death. 1 Like much of the early writing on Ranjitsinhji, Wild’s book is frankly hagiographie. As an authorized narrative, it approaches autobiography, and is thus marked by the unreliability as well as the privileged content that

in Migrant races
Dakar between garden city and cité-jardin

developments by the interwar period, the cité-jardin reference was in use to legitimate functional zoning within French town planning. That is, it enabled the justification of housing segregation for the purpose of hygienic and social improvement. 20 Under colonial circumstances, the cultural paternalism of the home country turned to racial paternalism. Spatial class

in Garden cities and colonial planning