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addressed within this offence. Second, gender was included as a basis of persecution, raising concerns among some delegates at the Rome Conference that such a ground would criminalise discrimination against homosexuals. 82 However, whilst the definition of gender in Article 7(3) of the Rome Statute is broad enough to cover discrimination related to socially constructed roles, 83 it is unclear whether this would include discrimination on the basis of homosexuality as persecution. Nevertheless, the impact of gender concerns upon the definitions

in War crimes and crimes against humanity in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court

resistance and which generate reactionary measures (e.g. anti-homosexual rights laws and violence; social pressures on women to remain in the home; rejection of claims of indigenous peoples for greater autonomy or participation in governance; particularistic interpretations of human rights; African denunciations of international criminal prosecutorial actions directed primarily

in Recognition and Global Politics

reflect ‘an unsuccessful attempt to combine the different concepts of “sex” and “gender”’. 341 This compromise language was adopted because of the fear of some States that the expression ‘gender’ could render suspect laws criminalising homosexuality, 342 and Sadat suggests that the resulting vagueness in the language used allows both sides to assert that the definition reflects their understanding of the term. 343 However, McAuliffe deGuzman asserts that Article 7(3) ‘represents an acceptance of the view that in applying and interpreting the

in War crimes and crimes against humanity in the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court
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1954–58), for instance, were designed to stage large-scale processions (Till 2005 , 85) as a means of legitimation by acclamation (Nothnagle 1999 ). West German war memorials, by contrast, focused more on victims of persecution whose identity as Jews, Roma and homosexuals among others was more to the fore than their political persuasion. The German Historical Museum The fall of the Berlin Wall

in Soldered states

in a particular direction. This role of the courts as ‘policy makers’ is a controversial one. [See also: constitutionalism] Kiessling Affair General Kiessling was a senior officer in NATO headquarters. On the basis of intelligence reports accusing him of homosexuality and thus indicating that he would be a security risk, he was sent into compulsory retirement in 1983 by the Defence Minister of the

in The politics today companion to West European Politics
Open Access (free)

This section provides, in the style of a dictionary, details of the political careers of significant West European politicians, especially those who have been head of their country’s government or head of state.

in The politics today companion to West European Politics

the other hand, Lawrence is characterized at times as tormented, sexually deviant, masochistic, mentally unstable, cold-blooded, fascist, vain and childish (Anderegg 1982: 292; Caton 1999: 176). As Macfie (2007: 85) points out: Lean and Bolt, far from identifying Lawrence as the typical, Western masculine hero, and the Arab as the necessarily effeminate other, as the orientalist paradigm requires, actually represent him as sexually deviant (possible a homosexual), a sadist and a masochist, albeit one who succeeds at the cost of his mental stability in transforming

in Romantic narratives in international politics

, a young don at King’s College, was clearly in awe of Sidgwick. Dickinson has been described as a sentimental homo­sexual and a sad dreamer who ‘wanted to save humanity’ but was unable to ‘hit the right keys on his typewriter’.46 This is not entirely fair. ­Dickinson did grapple with the real world and its problems and it was when he did so that the spirit of Sidgwick is most clearly present. A Modern Symposium (1908) relayed a conversation between thinly veiled personalities from the recent or contemporary political and intellectual scene in Britain. A central

in British liberal internationalism, 1880–1930