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Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski and Svenja Mintert

, the imagery used is hypermasculine and draws on metaphors of war, physical strength and heroism. This chapter draws on the theory of ‘hegemonic masculinity’ (Connell, 1987) to DOIDGE__9780719027624_Print.indd 113 08/01/2020 10:19 114 Ultras illustrate how gender is a key part of the ultras identity and that this is constantly negotiated, as shown with the Lazio flyers, through a mixture of coercion and consent. As part of this negotiation, however, female ultras are beginning to assert themselves in the curva at some clubs. There remains a prevailing ‘gender

in Ultras
Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski and Svenja Mintert

antagonistic interaction  –  people experience a pervasive feeling of tension … at higher levels of intensity … [this tension] shades over into fear. It is for this reason that Chapter 2 argued that emotions are an important factor in understanding fandom. Fear, anger, anxiety and tension can all contribute to violence, but it does not automatically equate to physical violence. The performances of bravado associated with masculinity are often individualised performances designed to take control of one’s emotions in the context. The main theoretical arguments of this book

in Ultras
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The passion and performance of contemporary football fandom

Since their emergence in Italy in 1968, ultras have become the most dominant style of football fandom in the world. Since its inception, the ultras style has spread from Southern Europe across North Africa to Northern and Eastern Europe, South East Asia and North America. This book argues that ultras are an important site of enquiry into understanding contemporary society. They are a passionate, politically engaged collective that base their identity around a form of consumption (football) that links to modern notions of identity like masculinity and nationalism. The book seeks to make a clear theoretical shift in studies of football fandom. While it sits in the body of literature focused on political mobilisations, social movements and hooliganism, it emphasises more fundamental sociological questions about group formation, notably collective performances and emotional relationships. By focusing on the common form of expression through the performance of choreographies, chants and sustained support throughout the match, this book shows how members build an emotional attachment to their club that valorises the colours and symbols of that team, whilst mobilising members against opponents. It does this through recognising the importance of gender, politics and violence to the expression of ultras fandom, as well as how this is presented on social media and within the stadium through specular choreographies.

Corpse, bodypolitics and contestation in contemporary Guatemala
Ninna Nyberg Sørensen

as ‘crimes of passion’ but rather as carefully planned, staged and executed in struggles over territorial control. As in regular war, violence against women serves a highly symbolic purpose in the war on drug trafficking: it creates cohesion within armed groups, reaffirms masculinity and is a form of attacking ‘the enemy’s morale’ (Toledo 2011). The BBC documentary Killer’s Paradise, based on several of the cases mentioned above, was broadcast worldwide in May 2006.16 What shocked the world most was the matter-of-fact and trophy-like explanations given by the young

in Governing the dead
Contested narratives of the independence struggle in postconfl ict Timor-Leste
Henri Myrttinen

, H., 2010, ‘Histories of Violence, States of Denial: Militias, Martial Arts and Masculinities in Timor-Leste’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban. Myrttinen, H., 2011a, ‘Nach dem bewaffneten Kampf: die Veteranen, Clandestinos und der Ruf nach Anerkennung’, in H. Myrttinen, M. Schlicher and M. Tschanz (eds), ‘Die Freiheit, für die wir kämpfen …’: Osttimor nach der Unabhängigkeit, pp. 155–68 (Berlin: Regiospectra Verlag). Myrttinen, H., 2011b, ‘Demanding Their Dues: Masculinities, Discontent and Violence in Post-Independence Timor

in Governing the dead
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A conclusion
Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski and Svenja Mintert

collective that base their identity around a form of consumption (football) that links to modern notions of identity like masculinity and nationalism. This collective identity is generated and reinforced through the collective rituals associated with matchday attendance. The match provides a focal point for the group. These regular, repetitive congregations are not a passive act, but active engagement which continues throughout the week as chants, banners and tifos are planned. The football season provides many of these focal points and this has a cumulative effect for the

in Ultras
Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski and Svenja Mintert

place within the groups’ understanding of what is an ‘authentic’ fan, and redefining the boundaries of who they feel belong. The hegemonic masculinity of ultras fandom remains. Ultimately, fans construct what they see as political on their own terms (Sandvoss, 2003). While social media can provide a forum for political debate, it does not mean that this is what ultras will use it for. According to Jenkins (2008: 239): ‘One way that popular culture can enable a more engaged citizenry is by allowing people to play with power on a microlevel … popular culture may be

in Ultras
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Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski and Svenja Mintert

noted earlier, the ultras are predominantly masculine fan DOIDGE__9780719027624_Print.indd 16 08/01/2020 10:19 Introduction 17 groups. Chapter 5 provides an analysis of the performance of gender, particularly hegemonic masculinity, through the choreographies and activities of ultras groups. This gendered approach leads into a chapter on violence (Chapter 6), which has become a part of the repertoire of some groups. Again, much of the violence is performative and is designed to assert symbolic dominance over rivals. Once again, choreographies help present this

in Ultras
Liene Ozoliņa

’ is a common trope in the Latvian language. It usually expresses an appreciation of one’s masculinity. In Latvian folksongs, men are compared to oak trees while women are ‘slender like linden trees’. Yet, this trope has deeper nationalist connotations as well. The oak tree is a symbol invoking images of the self-sufficient Latvian peasant, living in his own farmstead with an oak growing in the front yard. This peasant’s resilience was placed at the heart of the national development strategy, as discussed in Chapter 1. In Soviet Latvia, a group of writers and artists

in Politics of waiting
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Mark Doidge, Radosław Kossakowski and Svenja Mintert

Ultras such a level of prominence because they entered the bolel’shchiki (supporters’ groups) subculture when its development was nascent, underinstitutionalized, and unable to defend itself’. On the other hand, Glathe (2016: 1523) shows that the readiness of Russian fans to engage in right-wing activity stems from wider group pursuits associated with masculinity and violence. Being organised into ‘legions’ and ‘firms’, with regular fight training, a passion for violence and ‘a collective self-image with military undertones’ highlights the gendered aspects. Once again

in Ultras