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Author: Alannah Tomkins

Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.

Michael Robinson

feminised condition constituted ‘a crisis of masculinity.’ 26 Loughran counters that military and medical officials were more likely to compare shell-shocked servicemen to children as they were to class, rank or gender. 27 Jessica Meyer's reading of shell-shock also cites that ideals of masculinity during the era were heavily associated with discourse relating to adult maturity over the immature child. 28 Grafton Elliot

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Michael Robinson

November 1921. 34 Bourke, ‘Effeminacy, ethnicity and the end of trauma’, 65. 35 NA, PIN 15/57, The Chronic Mental. 36 Jessica Meyer, Men of War: Masculinity and the

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Michael Robinson

For case studies of Australia and Canada, see, for example, Marina Larsson, ‘Families and institutions for shell-shocked soldiers in Australia after the First World War’, Social History of Medicine , 22:1 (2008), 97–114; Mark Humphries, ‘War's long shadow: masculinity, medicine, and the gendered politics of trauma, 1914–1939’, Canadian Historical Review , 91:3 (2010), 503–31. 171 NA, PIN 15/2611, Report on the General

in Shell-shocked British Army veterans in Ireland, 1918–39
Abstract only
Alannah Tomkins

besetting disinterested and manly professionals in a smoothly functioning polity. This research offers a fine-grained analysis of the challenges to medical careers based on multiple case studies featuring a measure of ‘failure’ and the questions this also raises about the nature and construction of medical masculinity. Retrieving these cases has swept up over 1,800 men who encountered one or multiple difficulties. The majority of these practitioners – over 1,000 – were identified in the context of financial hardship, but large cohorts were also uncovered among men thought

in Medical misadventure in an age of professionalisation, 1780–1890
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Alannah Tomkins

and GMC recognition, plus attributes of Victorian middleclass masculinity including a respectable marriage, and still have fallen short. Admittedly Hoyle was probably disadvantaged or disturbed by 2 Medical misadventure his father’s example – Hoyle senior was also a practitioner and had faked his own abduction and murder in 1845 – but the two different accounts of his life illustrate the positive ways that even problematic medical careers might have been read in the past.6 A better understanding of the professionalising process in medicine requires attention to

in Medical misadventure in an age of professionalisation, 1780–1890
Emily Cock

bodies, which we will see again in Hester Pulter's poem on Davenant's lost nose. Here, Artops and Neander undercut both the value of honour obtained through military injury and that of the prosthetic interventions offered in recompense. The ultimate assertion of masculinity – martial honour – is literally destabilised in the ‘halfe’ body that ‘swing[s]’, ‘hang[s]’, and is ‘tost by th’ Winde’. Offstage, the men who are able to use these scars to their best advantage are those who can provide indisputable provenance. A number of portraits exist that show men proudly

in Rhinoplasty and the nose in early modern British medicine and culture
Tommy Dickinson

-bending ­behaviours. The chapter also analyses how some of these behaviours can be seen as being gendered in nature: nurses  were not simply  passing as nurses, they enacted ­particular types of masculinity and ­femininity which they deemed to be ­appropriate to evade being caught or s­ uspected of disobeying those in authority. 179 ‘Curing queers’ Subversion and nursing Subversive practice on the part of nurses is not a new phenomenon. While it was established in Chapter 3 that many nurses under Nazi rule engaged in some barbaric and unethical practices by obeying orders from

in ‘Curing queers’
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Clement Masakure

discourses around masculinity and appropriate careers. 16 In this book, I demonstrate the presence of male medical orderlies who practised nursing in government and mission hospitals and highlight the role of guerrilla medics who were central in the provision of medical services to freedom fighters during the 1970s war. 17 Still, in Zimbabwe, the male SRNs was a rare species until the middle of the 1960s, when the government commenced the training of male SRNs. For those interested in male nurses, it will be essential to examine the reasons for this change in policy on

in African nurses and everyday work in twentieth-century Zimbabwe
Bodies and environments in Italy and England

This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink, excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy. The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to affect human bodies and health.