Victorian medical men could suffer numerous setbacks on their individual paths to professionalisation, and Thomas Elkanah Hoyle's career offers a telling exemplar. This book addresses a range of the financial, professional, and personal challenges that faced and sometimes defeated the aspiring medical men of England and Wales. Spanning the decades 1780-1890, from the publication of the first medical directory to the second Medical Registration Act, it considers their careers in England and Wales, and in the Indian Medical Service. The book questions the existing picture of broad and rising medical prosperity across the nineteenth century to consider the men who did not keep up with professionalising trends. Financial difficulty was widespread in medical practice, and while there are only a few who underwent bankruptcy or insolvency identified among medical suicides, the fear of financial failure could prove a powerful motive for self-destruction. The book unpicks the life stories of men such as Henry Edwards, who could not sustain a professional persona of disinterested expertise. In doing so it uncovers the trials of the medical marketplace and the pressures of medical masculinity. The book also considers charges against practitioners that entailed their neglect, incompetence or questionable practice which occasioned a threat to patients' lives. The occurrence and reporting of violent crime by medical men, specifically serious sexual assault and murder is also discussed. A tiny proportion of medical practitioners also experienced life as a patient in an asylum.
feminised condition constituted ‘a crisis of masculinity.’
Loughran counters that military and medical officials were more likely to compare shell-shocked servicemen to children as they were to class, rank or gender.
Jessica Meyer's reading of shell-shock also cites that ideals of masculinity during the era were heavily associated with discourse relating to adult maturity over the immature child.
For case studies of Australia and Canada, see, for example, Marina Larsson, ‘Families and institutions for shell-shocked soldiers in Australia after the First World War’, Social History of Medicine , 22:1 (2008), 97–114; Mark Humphries, ‘War's long shadow: masculinity, medicine, and the gendered politics of trauma, 1914–1939’, Canadian Historical Review , 91:3 (2010), 503–31.
NA, PIN 15/2611, Report on the General
besetting disinterested and manly professionals in a smoothly functioning polity.
This research offers a fine-grained analysis of the challenges to
medical careers based on multiple case studies featuring a measure of
‘failure’ and the questions this also raises about the nature and construction of medical masculinity. Retrieving these cases has swept up over
1,800 men who encountered one or multiple difficulties. The majority
of these practitioners – over 1,000 – were identified in the context
of financial hardship, but large cohorts were also uncovered among
and GMC recognition, plus attributes of Victorian middleclass masculinity including a respectable marriage, and still have fallen
short. Admittedly Hoyle was probably disadvantaged or disturbed by
his father’s example – Hoyle senior was also a practitioner and had
faked his own abduction and murder in 1845 – but the two different
accounts of his life illustrate the positive ways that even problematic
medical careers might have been read in the past.6 A better understanding of the professionalising process in medicine requires attention to
bodies, which we will see again in Hester Pulter's poem on Davenant's lost nose. Here, Artops and Neander undercut both the value of honour obtained through military injury and that of the prosthetic interventions offered in recompense. The ultimate assertion of masculinity – martial honour – is literally destabilised in the ‘halfe’ body that ‘swing[s]’, ‘hang[s]’, and is ‘tost by th’ Winde’.
Offstage, the men who are able to use these scars to their best advantage are those who can provide indisputable provenance. A number of portraits exist that show men proudly
-bending behaviours. The chapter also
analyses how some of these behaviours can be seen as being gendered
in nature: nurses were not simply passing as nurses, they enacted
particular types of masculinity and femininity which they deemed to
be appropriate to evade being caught or s uspected of disobeying those
Subversion and nursing
Subversive practice on the part of nurses is not a new phenomenon.
While it was established in Chapter 3 that many nurses under Nazi rule
engaged in some barbaric and unethical practices by obeying orders
discourses around masculinity and appropriate careers. 16 In this book, I demonstrate the presence of male medical orderlies who practised nursing in government and mission hospitals and highlight the role of guerrilla medics who were central in the provision of medical services to freedom fighters during the 1970s war. 17 Still, in Zimbabwe, the male SRNs was a rare species until the middle of the 1960s, when the government commenced the training of male SRNs. For those interested in male nurses, it will be essential to examine the reasons for this change in policy on
This book explores whether early modern people cared about their health, and what
did it mean to lead a healthy life in Italy and England. According to the
Galenic-Hippocratic tradition, 'preservative' medicine was one of the
three central pillars of the physician's art. Through a range of textual
evidence, images and material artefacts, the book documents the profound impact
which ideas about healthy living had on daily practices as well as on
intellectual life and the material world in Italy and England. Staying healthy
and health conservation was understood as depending on the careful management of
the six 'Non-Naturals': the air one breathed, food and drink,
excretions, sleep, exercise and repose, and the 'passions of the
soul'. The book provides fresh evidence about the centrality of the
Non-Naturals in relation to groups whose health has not yet been investigated in
works about prevention: babies, women and convalescents. Pregnancy constituted a
frequent physical state for many women of the early modern European aristocracy.
The emphasis on motion and rest, cleansing the body, and improving the mental
and spiritual states made a difference for the aristocratic woman's success
in the trade of frequent pregnancy and childbirth. Preventive advice was not
undifferentiated, nor simply articulated by individual complexion. Examining the
roles of the Non-Naturals, the book provides a more holistic view of
convalescent care. It also deals with the paradoxical nature of perceptions
about the Neapolitan environment and the way in which its airs were seen to
affect human bodies and health.