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masculinity, on the other hand, praises strong, rational, and competitive characteristics, which are superior to femininity as well as other constructs of masculinity. The construction of hegemonic masculinity is often illustrated through the military, where being a soldier is traditionally characterised as possessing these masculine traits, which include capacity for violence.24 Such characteristics, which associate masculinity with strength and rationality while the opposite is aligned to femininity, are encouraged through social institutions that reinforce gender

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland

’. Nandy argues that ‘the main threat to the colonizers is … the latent fear that the colonized will reject the consensus and, instead of trying to redeem their “masculinity” by becoming the counter players of the rulers according to the established rules, will discover an alternative frame of reference within which the oppressed do not seem weak, degraded and distorted men trying to break the monopoly of the rulers on a fixed quantity of machismo’ (Nandy, 2001: 175–6). Gandhi successfully played on these fears. In the meantime, the Muslims in India were becoming more

in India in a globalized world