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Máire Braniff and Sophie Whiting

masculinity, on the other hand, praises strong, rational, and competitive characteristics, which are superior to femininity as well as other constructs of masculinity. The construction of hegemonic masculinity is often illustrated through the military, where being a soldier is traditionally characterised as possessing these masculine traits, which include capacity for violence.24 Such characteristics, which associate masculinity with strength and rationality while the opposite is aligned to femininity, are encouraged through social institutions that reinforce gender

in Theories of International Relations and Northern Ireland
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An act of queering citizenship
Zalfa Feghali

citizenship [are] largely premised within normative parameters of masculinity and heterosexuality’.37 In so doing they identify the very notions that can be resisted through a queering of citizenship. This conceptual site where the practice of queering citizenship takes place is also evocative of what Holloway Sparks calls dissident citizenship. In her understanding, dissident citizenship is defined ‘as the practices of marginalized citizens who publicly contest prevailing arrangements of power by means of oppositional democratic practices that augment or replace

in Crossing borders and queering citizenship
The long ordeal of Balkan Muslims, 1912-34
Uğur Ümit Üngör

. Whether the inability of Ottoman men to protect their womenfolk gave rise to a crisis of masculinity remains a subject for future study. As for the children, Eyal Ginio convincingly argues that the Ottoman elites’ concept of childhood changed as a result of the violence of the Balkan Wars. If we follow this logic, both developments go a long way to explain the fate of women and children during the Great War as both symbols and targets of violence.27 The emotions of Young Turk elites expelled from their ancestral lands included humiliation, helplessness, anger, loss of

in Europe on the move
Sagarika Dutt

’. Nandy argues that ‘the main threat to the colonizers is … the latent fear that the colonized will reject the consensus and, instead of trying to redeem their “masculinity” by becoming the counter players of the rulers according to the established rules, will discover an alternative frame of reference within which the oppressed do not seem weak, degraded and distorted men trying to break the monopoly of the rulers on a fixed quantity of machismo’ (Nandy, 2001: 175–6). Gandhi successfully played on these fears. In the meantime, the Muslims in India were becoming more

in India in a globalized world
Carla Konta

, determined individual success in the United States. Jazz music encouraged individual creativity within established parameters and rendered the music an apt metaphor for liberal democracy. Yet, jazz musicians and US policymakers often spoke different languages. For the musicians the tours represented ‘long-overdue recognition from a society that had previously failed to acknowledge’ them. They toured, proud of representing the nation and helping the country, with shared patriot commitment for ‘the edgy, competitive masculinity of Cold War America’ not foreign to jazz

in US public diplomacy in socialist Yugoslavia, 1950–70
Constance Duncombe

illuminates a particularly paternalistic and gendered discourse in terms of how statehood and interstate relationships are represented. The language also speaks to the possibility that Iran feels itself infantilised by the US, which is highly offensive and disrespectful. While the policy documents examined did not demonstrate a verbalised or written label of ‘father’ on the part of the US, it is clear in the context of Iranian discussions about its position in the Iran–US relationship that the US assumes a paternal role. The linkage of masculinity and behaviour contrary to

in Representation, recognition and respect in world politics