concentrated form a more
widely encountered tendency of young men in towns to congregate
socially, to drink, and on occasion to prove their developing
masculinity in acts of collective violence. 7
The secular population was itself, of
course, divided by wealth, status and influence. Class also can be seen
as a contributor to social conflict in the town. The large proportion of
Hadley (ed.), Masculinity in Medieval Europe , London, 1999;
R. H. Britnell, ‘The economy of British towns
1300–1540’, in CUHB , pp. 313–33; N. P.
Tanner, The Church in Late Medieval Norwich 1370–1532 ,
Toronto, 1984 ; T. R. Slater and G. Rosser
(eds), The Church in the Medieval Town , Aldershot, 1998
1000–1700 (Chicago, 1982 ), p. 53.
Papi, ‘I frati e le donne’, in
‘In castro poenitentiae’ , pp. 119–40;
J. Coakley, ‘Friars, sanctity and gender: mendicant encounters
with saints, 1250–1325’, in C. Lees (ed.), Medieval masculinities:
regarding men in the middle ages (Minneapolis, 1994 ), pp
her wider anxiety at the fact that she was chained up in a secular
prison with male guards, and also that she had not been allowed to hear
mass [ 55 ].
Whatever the personal reasons for
Joan to cross-dress, both her activities as a warrior and her male
clothing gave her an air of maleness and masculinity, and enabled her to
access the male hegemony and social constructs of gender. While the
Storia di Napoli , vol. III (Naples, 1979), pp.
1–334, esp. p. 120.
On the character of magnate culture, violence,
and masculinity, see Carol Lansing, The Florentine Magnates:
Lineage and Faction in a Medieval Commune (Princeton,