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of a middle-class tradesman. Alexander Judson takes literally Spenser's allusions to his Spencer patrons and elaborates his kinship ties with the wealthy Spencers of Althorp. Andrew Hadfield records and reconciles both of these hypotheses concerning Spenser's lineage: Grosart's middle-class tradesman background and the aristocratic connections emphasized by Judson. 11 The biographies of Grosart

in The early Spenser, 1554–80

contextualizing Spenser's View of the Present State of Ireland , Debora Shuger explains that, to many Elizabethans, Ireland represented their own medieval past, a feudal world in which there was no middle class. Aristocratic noblemen held sway over their vassals, most of whom lacked the self-reliance of the English yeoman, merchant, or guildsman. 1 To cite only characteristically medieval events which occurred: rival

in The early Spenser, 1554–80

, matriculated as a gentleman pensioner, making him at least upper middle class by our standards. Harvey's wealthy father, however, was a rope-maker, branding him, like Spenser and Shakespeare, as a new man. Wealth and power were not enough to make an Elizabethan a great man. A title and estate had to have been in the family for generations for such assets to confer unqualified distinction. The seventeenth Earl of Oxford, whose character troubled many

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
Spenser, Sidney, and the early modern chivalric code

obligation as well as a privilege. It is less clear that these men – other than Gabriel Harvey and possibly Lodowick Bryskett – would have regarded Sir Thomas Smith as an exemplar of an ideal career path. Smith, by birth lower middle-class, distinguished himself as a scholar, became a professor of civil law at Cambridge. He moved from the university to the court, where he served as ambassador to France. He then became Elizabeth's Principal

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
Metamorphoses of early modern comedy in eighteenth-century bourgeois theatre

frenzy. From the point of view of both roles and plot, Emilia Galotti is recognised as a leading example of bourgeois tragedy ( Bürgerliches Trauerspiel ), an eighteenth-century genre that contrasts middle-class virtues and morals, here embodied by Emilia, with the excessive, corrupt world of the aristocracy, here represented by Prince Gonzaga. Lessing created his

in Transnational connections in early modern theatre
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with the maintenance of the status quo than with subversion, with middle aged if not middle class preoccupations and when its attack on traditional culture met with widespread and popular resistance. 3 Collinson links this with an ‘inwardly and outwardly more repressive’ approach that abhorred the emblematic, quoting a popular Puritan text from the Homilies: ‘the

in Mothers and meaning on the early modern English stage
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Why adapt The Spanish Tragedy today?

globalisation is a feature. As John Ralston Saul has pointed out, today’s elites are tied more by loyalty to each other than to their own countries – the rich in one country can relate to the rich in another more than they can to the poor or the middle class in their own. They do, too, in Kyd’s Spanish Tragedy : Balthazar is given more honour at the Spanish court than Horatio, a soldier who has worked, along

in Doing Kyd

denied nor treated with such hostility as they had been earlier. Playing to the ‘middle ground’ and without risk to its middle-class target audiences, Tootsie could be addressed relatively benignly to the ‘rights’ movement at its moderate end, while distancing itself from the ‘militant’ wing: JULIE

in Shakespeare’s cinema of love
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Performing the politics of passion: Troilus and Criseyde and Troilus and Cressida and the literary tradition of love and history

really were abolishing the past behind it. They all take themselves for Attila, in whose footsteps no grass grows back. They do not feel that they are removed from the Middle Ages by a certain number of centuries, but that they are separated by Copernican revolutions, epistemological breaks, epistemic ruptures so radical that nothing of the past ought to

in Love, history and emotion in Chaucer and Shakespeare
Criseyde to Cressida

, insolence and even insulting behaviour’, 1 arrogance may seem a straightforward, slightly uninteresting phenomenon, especially compared to the more ‘dramatic’ emotions, love and hate. In the Middle Ages, however, arrogant behaviour was highly problematic, given that arrogance, disdain and haughtiness were discussed and perceived of as a modality, ‘if not [the] chief incarnation of that fountainhead of vice

in Love, history and emotion in Chaucer and Shakespeare