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Ireland in a global world
Series: Irish Society

Migration to and from Ireland is often the subject of definitive claims. During the 1980s, migration from Ireland was most commonly described as a brain drain. Despite the constant flows and counterflows, academic studies tend to focus on just one direction of movement, reflecting dominant concerns at particular points in time. The 1950s and the 1980s are characterized as decades of emigration, the Celtic Tiger era as a period of immigration, and the current recession is manifest as a return to mass emigration. This book addresses the three key themes from a variety of spatial, temporal and theoretical perspectives. The theme of networks is addressed. Transnational loyalist networks acted both to facilitate the speaking tours of loyalist speakers and to re-translate the political meanings and messages being communicated by the speakers. The Irish Catholic Church and specifically its re-working of its traditional pastoral, lobbying and development role within Irish emigrant communities, is discussed. By highlighting three key areas such as motives, institutions and strategies, and support infrastructures, the book suggests that the Irish experience offers a nuanced understanding of the different forms of networks that exist between a state and its diaspora, and shows the importance of working to support the self-organization of the diaspora. Perceptions of belonging both pre- and postmigration encouraged ethnographic research in six Direct Provision asylum accommodation centres across Ireland. Finally, the book provides insights into the intersections between 'migrancy' and other social categories including gender, nationality and class/position in the labour hierarchy.

The intersections of language, space and time

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 199 11 Unbounding migration studies: the intersections of language, space and time 1 Bettina Migge and Mary Gilmartin Introduction: disciplinary borders As the foreign population of Ireland grew at unprecedented rates, it began to receive much academic attention. This early academic work, predominantly located within sociology, social policy and education (see, for example, Devine, 2010; Fanning, 2007),2 has shaped the study of contemporary migration to Ireland in two important ways. The first is through the

in Migrations

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 98 5 Transnational media networks and the ‘migration nation’ Aphra Kerr, Rebecca King-O’Riain and Gavan Titley Introduction: transnationalism and ‘integration’ While migration has become emblematic of an era of accelerated globalization in Ireland, public and political discourse rarely approaches migration and migrant lives with the same attention to connexity and flow evident in discussions of economic transformation, national ‘brand management’, and the banal and aspirational transnationalism of consumerist

in Migrations
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2 Mapping migration When Ernest Ravenstein published his ‘laws of migration’ in 1885, he illustrated his findings with a series of maps (Ravenstein 1885). Most of the maps show where internal migrants in the United Kingdom lived: these included maps of ‘the national element’, ‘the Irish element’, ‘the Scotch element’ and ‘the English element’. But one map attempts to show the movement of migrants (see Figure 2.1). It is entitled ‘Currents of Migration’, and at first glance it is difficult to make sense of. The map is in black and white and hand drawn, and is a

in Ireland and migration in the twenty-first century

Migration is one of the key issues in Ireland today. This book provides a new and original approach to understanding contemporary Irish migration and immigration, showing that they are processes that need to be understood together. It focuses on four key themes (work, social connections, culture and belonging) that are common to the experiences of immigrants, emigrants and internal migrants. The Gathering was an Irish government initiative held during 2013, bringing together festivals, concerts, seminars, family reunions under one convenient label, using it as a marketing campaign to encourage members of the Irish diaspora to visit Ireland. The 'Currents of Migration' map, together with the nuances of Ravenstein's discussion of migration, offer us a useful way to think about how we might map migration to and from Ireland. The emphasis on a close relationship between migration decisions and work has resulted in a wide range of research on the topic. The book describes social connections: on the ways in which we create, maintain and extend their social connections through the experience of migration. Migrants change the cultural structures and productions of particular places, and these changes may be welcomed to an extent, particularly in aspiring or already global cities. The temptations and complications of belonging become even more evident in association with migration. The book concludes by advocating for a place-based approach to migration, showing how this focus on Ireland as a specific place adds to our more general knowledge about migration as a process and as a lived experience.

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The place of migration

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 228 Conclusion: the place of migration Mary Gilmartin and Allen White In late 2011, the Irish Times began a new initiative called ‘Generation Emigration’. Introducing the initiative, Ciara Kenny wrote that it was aimed at the ‘current generation of mobile Irish citizens’, in the context of a ‘mass exodus’ from Ireland (Kenny, 2011). ‘Generation Emigration’ publishes blog entries and opinion pieces, and hosts discussions and links to features on emigration and to support and information groups. While on one level it

in Migrations

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 183 10 A countertopography of migrant experience in Ireland and beyond Deirdre Conlon The political, theoretical, and methodological project I want to advance is one that constructs countertopographies linking different places analytically in order to develop both the contour of common struggles and imagine a different kind of practical response to problems confronting them. Katz (2001a: 722) A countertopography invites geographers and scholars in allied disciplines to develop accounts of particular places and

in Migrations
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Ireland and its relationship with migration

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:38 Page 1 Introduction: Ireland and its relationship with migration Allen White and Mary Gilmartin When the Central Statistics Office (CSO) published its 2010 Population and Migration Estimates in September 2010, showing the highest level of net emigration from Ireland since 1989, the media response followed quickly (CSO, 2010). The Irish Times described emigration as ‘this social and economic scourge that ripped the heart out of communities and stifled development’, adding that it must be ‘confronted and defeated’ (Irish

in Migrations

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:39 Page 55 3 Migrant integration and the ‘network-making power’ of the Irish Catholic Church Breda Gray Introduction In this chapter I discuss the Irish Catholic Church as both a bureaucratic hierarchal institution and transnational network that promotes migrant integration and welfare via ‘network-making power’ (Castells, 2009, 2011). The Catholic Church has always channelled flows of religious values, information and people. However, my focus here is on the network-making power of the Irish Catholic Church in shaping the

in Migrations
Childhood visits to Ireland by the second generation in England

3995 Migrations.qxd:text 5/8/13 11:38 Page 17 1 Transnational networks across generations: childhood visits to Ireland by the second generation in England Bronwen Walter Introduction The close entanglements of families spread between Ireland and England are often ignored as transnational links, reflecting the hazy understanding of separate states within the ‘British Isles’ especially outside the Irish Republic. But the significance of these ties was demonstrated by the size of return migration of Irish nationals with their British-born children in the Celtic

in Migrations