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Edwin Bacon, Bettina Renz and Julian Cooper

Bacon 06 3/2/06 10:30 AM Page 126 6 Migration This chapter assesses migration policies carried out in Russia in recent years within the framework of the securitisation approach used throughout this book. We argue that according to this framework some areas of migration policy have been successfully securitised. This conclusion is reached through the study of three factors: first, official securitising discourse on migration; second, changes made to the institutional framework regulating migration; and third, a number of important developments in the sphere

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Gill Allwood and Khursheed Wadia

Allwood 02 24/2/10 2 10:27 Page 49 Migration contexts, demographic and social characteristics: refugee women in Britain and France This chapter introduces the reader to the landscape of international migration within which female refugee migrants are positioned. Its aim is twofold. First, it gives an overview of inward migration flows into Britain and France while bearing in mind both the general European context and processes of feminisation which have occurred over the last 50 years. Second, it presents, as fully as available data allows, the demographic

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The EU and the European Other

The Janus face of EU migration and visa policies in the neighbourhood

Igor Merheim-Eyre

12 Igor Merheim-Eyre The EU and the European Other: the Janus face of EU migration and visa policies in the neighbourhood In 1992, as war and suffering tore through the disintegrating Yugoslavia, ‘Europe’ faced the biggest refugee and migration crisis since the Second World War. Germany alone admitted 350,000 refugees and was processing a further 438,000 applications. It was further estimated that around 500,000 illegal migrants entered Italy via North Africa and the Balkans (Torpey in Andreas and Snyder, 2000: 44–45). ‘The burden on the host countries is

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A nation on the move

The Indian diaspora

Sagarika Dutt

, Singhvi noted that ‘dual citizenship does not mean dual allegiance … it will be permitted only for members of the Indian diaspora who satisfy the conditions and criteria laid down in the legislation to be enacted to amend the relevant sections of the Citizenship Act, 1955’ (Khan, 2002). International migration from the Indian subcontinent Castles and Miller argue that ‘international migration is not an invention of the late twentieth century, nor even of modernity in its twin guises of capitalism and The Indian diaspora colonialism. Migrations have been part of human

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Securitising Russia

The domestic politics of Putin

Edwin Bacon, Bettina Renz and Julian Cooper

This book shows the impact of twenty-first-century security concerns on the way Russia is ruled. It demonstrates how President Vladimir Putin has wrestled with terrorism, immigration, media freedom, religious pluralism, and economic globalism, and argues that fears of a return to old-style authoritarianism oversimplify the complex context of contemporary Russia. Since the early 1990s, Russia has been repeatedly analysed in terms of whether it is becoming a democracy or not. This book instead focuses on the internal security issues common to many states in the early twenty-first century, and places them in the particular context of Russia, the world's largest country, still dealing with its legacy of communism and authoritarianism. Detailed analysis of the place of security in Russia's political discourse and policy making reveals nuances often missing from overarching assessments of Russia today. To characterise the Putin regime as the ‘KGB-resurgent’ is to miss vital continuities, contexts, and on-going political conflicts that make up the contemporary Russian scene. The book draws together current debates about whether Russia is a ‘normal’ country developing its own democratic and market structures, or a nascent authoritarian regime returning to the past. Drawing on extensive interviews and Russian source material, it argues that the growing security factor in Russia's domestic politics is neither ubiquitous nor unchallenged. It must be understood in the context of Russia's immediate history and the growing domestic security concerns of many states the world over.

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Edwin Bacon, Bettina Renz and Julian Cooper

Bacon 08 3/2/06 10:37 AM Page 177 8 Conclusion Throughout this book we have analysed a number of different aspects of Russia today through the prism of security. Using the securitisation approach developed in the sphere of international relations1 we have considered contemporary Russian domestic policies in relation to Chechen separatism, the media, terrorism, religion, political parties, nationalism, migration, and the economy. Although there are of course connections between these policy areas – some more so than others – each chapter can be read on its

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The European Union and its eastern neighbourhood

Europeanisation and its twenty-first-century contradictions

Edited by: Paul Flenley and Michael Mannin

The European Union (EU) is faced by the Eurozone crisis, the rise of anti-EU populism and 'Brexit'. In its immediate neighbourhood it is confronted by a range of challenges and threats. This book explores the origins of the term 'Europeanisation' and the way in which its contemporary iteration-EU-isation-has become associated with the normative power of the EU. The concept of European identity is discussed, with an indication that there are different levels of identity of which a European consciousness can be just one. An overview of different mechanisms the EU uses to promote EU-isation in the neighbourhood and a discussion on the limits of conditionality when membership is not on offer is also included. The book discusses these themes in more detail. It powerfully states the salience of Russia in establishing an alternative geopolitical pole to the EU. The presence of Russia as the Eurasian Economic Union appears to play the role of being a way of preserving traditional conservative values in contrast to the uncomfortable challenges of EU-isation. The Balkans' and Turkey's reception of EU-isation is not affected by the experience of being in-betweeners. The book examines the issue of EU-isation and the relationship between values (norms), interests and identity based on various sectors/themes which cut across different neighbours and are core elements in their relations with the EU.

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Edwin Bacon, Bettina Renz and Julian Cooper

state’s recent policies in regard to the media, civil society, national separatism and terrorism (Chechnya), migration, and the economy. In addition, Chapter 2 considers the increasing role of former and current security service personnel in Russian politics. The growth of people with a security background in key positions within the Russian elite is detailed, but, although counting former security service personnel in key positions is useful and indicative of a general trend, it can only take us so far before the question ‘so what?’ is asked. The securitisation

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Edwin Bacon, Bettina Renz and Julian Cooper

decree of June 1992 which established the Security Council gave it the responsibility of preparing an annual report to act as a basic programme for the executive, including the government, ‘on questions of domestic, foreign and military policy’. This wide remit has been used at different times to justify Security Council engagement with a range of issues, including health, scientific affairs, regional policy, social questions, Bacon 05 3/2/06 10:29 AM Page 103 Civil society ‘spiritual security’, migration, and a long list of economic questions (see Chapter 7

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African security in the twenty-first century

Challenges and opportunities

Stephen Emerson and Hussein Solomon

This book explores the evolving African security paradigm in light of the multitude of diverse threats facing the continent and the international community today and in the decades ahead. It challenges current thinking and traditional security constructs as woefully inadequate to meet the real security concerns and needs of African governments in a globalized world. The continent has becoming increasingly integrated into an international security architecture, whereby Africans are just as vulnerable to threats emanating from outside the continent as they are from home-grown ones. Thus, Africa and what happens there, matters more than ever. Through an in-depth examination and analysis of the continent’s most pressing traditional and non-traditional security challenges—from failing states and identity and resource conflict to terrorism, health, and the environment—it provides a solid intellectual foundation, as well as practical examples of the complexities of the modern African security environment. Not only does it assess current progress at the local, regional, and international level in meeting these challenges, it also explores new strategies and tools for more effectively engaging Africans and the global community through the human security approach.