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This book introduces the reader to emerging research in the broad field of 'imperial migration' and shows how this 'new' migration scholarship had developed our understanding of the British World. This is done through an analysis of some of former colonies of British Empire such as Australia, Canada, India and Zambia. The book focuses on the ideas of Reverend Thomas Malthus of how population movements presaged forces within sectors of a pre-industrial economy. The formation of national and imperial identities along racial lines in the mid-nineteenth century is covered by an analysis of the mid-nineteenth century British censuses. The clergy played a pivotal role in the importation and diffusion of a sense of British identity (and morality) to Australian churchgoers. The resistance and accommodation of Welsh Presbyterianism in Eastern Bengal is investigated through the varieties of engagement with Indian Christians and non-Christians. The book argues that Asian migration and the perceived threat it posed to the settler colonies was an issue which could unite these seemingly incongruent elements of the British World. Child migration has become a very sensitive and politically charged issue, and the book examines one of the lesser studied child migration agencies, the Middlemore Children's Emigration Homes. The book also deals with the cultural cross-currents in the construction of an Anglo-Canadian or 'Britannic' national identity. The white settlers' decisions to stay on after independence was granted to Zambia are instructive as it fills an important gap in our understanding of Africa's colonial legacy.

The case of the Middlemore Homes, 1872–1972

Introduction Between 1869 and 1939, over 100,000 children, seen to be at risk from crime and destitution, were removed from orphanages, workhouses, families and streets of Great Britain. Many were sent to Canada and are now known as British Home Children. Others went to Australia, New Zealand and Rhodesia. Approximately fifty organisations were involved in juvenile migration

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world

Both writers and critics of the British World have primarily focused on the white inhabitants within it; the role of non-whites and their impact remains problematic. It is only by studying the reactions to Asian migration, however, that historians can understand why, over time, the concept of empire became less compelling to the settler colonies and why alternative imagined

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world

problems of demobilisation, veterans’ discontent, industrial regeneration and chronic unemployment. Moreover, the failure of the British government to launch a successful domestic colonisation scheme also had a direct bearing on the implementation of this empire migration project. The outbreak of war effectively ended imperial migration for the next five years. ‘Of course everything here is all war and

in Unfit for heroes
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Mapping the contours of the British World

settlers, indentured migrants and indigenous peoples, are increasingly regarded as fundamental to the world made by modern empires. In particular, the recent literature on the relationship between globalisation and empire underscores the importance of emigration to racial thinking and the ‘imperial imaginary’; the profound impact of migration cycles upon the development of settler societies and economies

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world

Migration to Natal From the 1850s there were fresh attempts to encourage migrants to move to South Africa, particularly to Natal. The colony of Natal had been annexed by the British in 1843 in order to frustrate the Boer Voortrekkers in their desire to establish a republic there, a settlement which had led to conflict with the Zulu which would become a major element of the

in The Scots in South Africa

world is now generally discounted. Yet there were certainly regions in each of the home countries which were caught in severely negative conditions and where labour supply outran the long-term possibilities of employment. The efficacy of migration as a means of relief, in terms of Malthusian doctrine, is the central issue in this essay. Malthus offered a surprisingly wide range of propositions on the

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
Late twentieth-century British emigration and global identities – the end of the ‘British World’?

Falklands happened and I, I was disgusted and appalled by it and I still remain to this day . . . It turned me against cheap nasty jingoism . . . My reaction was to get out, I just thought oh, I just didn’t see that there was any particular way back for Britain by that point.’ 2 Such ideological spurs to migration might be thought to be a luxury of late twentieth-century affluent societies, but it

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
British interpretations of midnineteenth-century racial demographics

what role do race and migration play in connecting them? Race became a widespread aspect of discourse about empire and population in the middle decades of the nineteenth century, and the census allowed people to view their empire and the world as ones in which different races competed for demographic dominance. By examining British interpretations of colonial statistics we can gain insight into the

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world
Interpreting a migrant’s letters from Australia, 1926–67

Some years ago I gave a paper in London to the first British World Conference. I chose the occasion to question the frequent use of the word ‘diaspora’ in historians’ writings about British migration from the United Kingdom to the British Empire. The term was rarely defined, and all too often seemed to be just an alternative to the neutral term ‘migration’ or the

in Empire, migration and identity in the British world