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was a canny Leeds pipe manufacturer aware of a growing Irish market. The use of this pipe to the point of discard suggests that the user could have been Irish or had links to Ireland and, as such, took steps to assert his distinctive identity by using a pipe marked ‘Dublin’. Mass migration from Ireland in the mid-to-late nineteenth century as a result of famine, economic instability, and rural evictions brought many Irish people to the industrial centres of England and the United States. Historian of medicine Catharine Coleborne has

in An archaeology of lunacy
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as massive rural depopulation due to emigration, disease, and starvation (Woodham-Smith 1962 : 411). Migration from the countryside into major towns and cities was common; the famine and the privations of its aftermath also led to mass emigration from Ireland to England and the United States. The famine had an impact on the supply of food to public asylums, as well as placing great strain on the asylum system in general. The main staple of the public asylum patient’s diet in Ireland was the potato. A typical diet consisted of oatmeal for breakfast, potatoes with

in An archaeology of lunacy