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Refugees in Russia, 1914-18
Irina Belova

Empire. Many of the refugees who fled from the western borderlands originated from Grodno and Vilna provinces. For the most part they were ethnically Belarusians, who settled in Kaluga, Tula, Riazan and Orel, although their numbers included Polish and Jewish households. In addition, Ukrainian refugees from Volyn’ and Kholm, as well as Grodno, tended to settle in Kursk and Voronezh. Finally, the mass migration eastwards included German colonists – like everyone else, subjects of the tsar – who were deported to the Russian interior. In addition to official and semi

in Europe on the move
Mariusz Korzeniowski

v 3 v Refugees from Polish territories in Russia during the First World War Mariusz Korzeniowski Introduction Warfare on Polish soil in 1914–15 caused huge material losses, as well as the impoverishment and deprivation of the local population.1 The war also led to mass displacement, much of it involuntary, involving people living in the territories of the Kingdom of Poland, a constituent part of the Russian Empire, and in Galicia, belonging to Austria-Hungary. Migration began in the first weeks of the war but acquired a mass character only in the latter half of

in Europe on the move
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Gatrell Peter

Introduction Introduction Peter Gatrell The English writer and critic John Berger regarded the twentieth century as ‘the century of departure, of migration, of exodus, of disappearance: the century of people helplessly seeing others, who were close to them, disappear over the horizon’.1 Berger’s characterisation of ‘helplessness’ invites us to consider not only how people were rendered liable to sudden and involuntary displacement, but also how those processes were represented at the time and subsequently. Global conflicts, revolutions and civil wars have

in Europe on the move
Refugees in the Austrian part of the Habsburg Empire during the First World War
Martina Hermann

First World War’, in Matthew Stibbe (ed.), Captivity, Forced Labour and Forced Migration in Europe During the First World War (London: Routledge, 2009), pp. 82–110 (here p. 85).   6 Matthew Stibbe, ‘Enemy aliens, deportees, refugees: internment practices in v 151 v Martina Hermann the Habsburg Empire, 1914–1918’, Journal of Modern European History, 12, no. 4 (2014), 479–99.  7 Niederösterreichisches Landesarchiv, St. Pölten (NÖLA, State Archives of Lower Austria, St. Pölten), Präsidialaktenbestand (Pr), Pr2701PXIIa1916 and Pr336PXIb1919.  8 Matthew Stibbe, ‘Civilian

in Europe on the move
Population movements during Greece’s ‘decade of war’, 1912–22
Emilia Salvanou

Empire and the conceptual connotations of the terms used, see Martin Baldwin-Edwards, Riki van Boeschoten and Hans Vermeulen, ‘Introduction’, in Baldwin-Edwards et al. (eds), Migration in the Southern Balkans (Berlin: Springer Open, 2015), pp. 1–29. 20 Even attitudes towards the uprisings differed according to ethnic, cultural and religious characteristics of the community that eventually comprised the Greek nation. These differences were later effaced. See Christine Philliou, ‘Breaking the Tetrarchia and saving the Kaymakam: to be an ambitious Ottoman Christian in

in Europe on the move
Nikolai Vukov

v 12 v The refugee question in Bulgaria before, during and after the First World War Nikolai Vukov Introduction Bulgaria stands out as a specific case in relation to population displacement during the First World War for several reasons. The migration of ethnic Bulgarians to Bulgarian territory took place on a very large scale prior to the First World War, reflecting the consequences of popular uprisings at the turn of the century, and especially the impact of the Balkan Wars in 1912–13, the second of which ended with a catastrophic defeat for Bulgaria and a

in Europe on the move
Ruth Leiserowitz

v 1 v Population displacement in East Prussia during the First World War Ruth Leiserowitz Introduction As a region bordering the Russian Empire, East Prussia was, apart from Alsace-Lorraine, the only part of the German Empire to be directly affected by the military operations of the First World War. There had been no military actions in this region since the Napoleonic wars. Forced migration was hitherto unknown, and the refugee crisis in 1914 found everyone totally unprepared. In August 1914 two distinct waves of forced migration took place in opposing

in Europe on the move
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Displaced persons in the Italian linguistic space during the First World War
Marco Mondini and Francesco Frizzera

economic restrictions, they v 184 v Displaced persons in the Italian linguistic space were seen as rivals for food, and potential competitors for local work. In Naples, Macerata and Umbria, refugees were publicly accused of causing a food shortage and soaring prices; words sometimes led to blows which the authorities had difficulty in calming.20 There was also cultural antagonism. Caporetto caused the first mass migration in the Italian peninsula and, standard Italian being in limited use, there were problems of communication especially among women and the older

in Europe on the move
Hungarian Jewry and the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria- Hungary
Rebekah Klein-Pejšová

said; they lived off aid, engaged in profiteering and dishonest business practices, and shirked military duty. Government officials, politicians, newspaper columnists and ordinary members of the public engaged in variations on these themes, arguing for refugee removal and repatriation. As anti-Jewish feeling proliferated throughout the war, the customary complaints about the refugees spread to the Jewish population as a whole.7 Studies of the wartime Jewish refugee crisis in Austria-Hungary have typically focused on refugee migration into major centres further

in Europe on the move
The long ordeal of Balkan Muslims, 1912-34
Uğur Ümit Üngör

massacres perpetrated on the civil population – the first of their kind in twentieth-century warfare – inflicted wounds far deeper than the defeat itself.22 The British consul in Salonika witnessed the process of forced migration and reported as follows: The result of the massacre of Muslims at the beginning of the war, of the looting of their goods in the ensuing months, of the settling of Christians in their villages, of their persecution by Christian neighbours, of their torture and beating by Greek troops, has been the creation of a state of terror among the Islamic

in Europe on the move