Concerns of linguistic, cultural and military incursion from France emerge more frequently in the wake of the Seven Years’ War. In the literary arena, one of the ways in which these concerns are marked is through the highly-contested national stakes of chivalry. This essay argues that these national stakes of chivalry are negotiated in the realm of the Gothic romance in a particularly fluid and dynamic manner. Addressing recent critical assumptions about the conservatism inherent in prose treatments of medieval chivalry, the essay explores the possibility that Gothic romance recuperates a more positive version of chivalry in the wake of the famous Burke/Wollstonecraft revolutionary debate of 1790.
This essay argues that Stephen King‘s 2006 novel Cell explores the age of terror with the aid of two concurrent Gothic discourses. The first such discourse belongs to the tradition that Patrick Brantlinger has termed Imperial Gothic. As such, it imagines with the War on Terror that the threat that the (Gothic) Other constitutes is most usefully managed with the help of massive, military violence. The other, and more traditional, Gothic discourse radically imagines such violence as instead a War of Terror. The essay then argues that Cell does not attempt to reconcile these opposed positions to terror. Instead, the novel employs the two Gothic discourses to describe the epistemological rift that terror inevitably creates.
The changes in warfare during the twentieth century could be addressed from a variety of perspectives, political, cultural, and national. This book addresses the issue of how gender is constructed by exploring a range of historical events. It also asserts that a focus on gender, rather than producing a depoliticised reading of our culture, offers an informed debate on a range of political issues. The book explores the impact of warfare on women whose civilian or quasi-military roles resulted in their exile or self-exile to the role of 'other'. The book first draws upon a number of genres to use Richard Aldington and H. D. (the poet Hilda Doolittle), to understand the social and cultural implications of warfare for both parties in a relationship. Then, it examines the intricate gender assumptions that surround the condition of 'shell shock' through a detailed exploration of the life and work of Ver a Brittain. Continuing this theme, considering the nature of warfare, the gendered experience of warfare, through the lens of the home front, the book discusses the gendered attitudes to the First World War located within Aldous Huxley's novella 'Farcical History of Richard Greenow'. Wars represented in Western cinema are almost universally gendered as male, which corresponds to the battlefield history of twentieth-century warfare. As this situation changes, and more women join the armed services, especially in the United States, a more inclusive cinematic coding evolves through struggle. The book considers three decades of film, from the Vietnam War to the present.
For the last three decades or so, literary studies, especially those dealing with premodern texts, have been dominated by the New Historicist paradigm. This book is a collection of essays explores medieval and early modern Troilus-texts from Chaucer to Shakespeare. The contributions show how medieval and early modern fictions of Troy use love and other emotions as a means of approaching the problem of tradition. The book argues that by emphasizing Troilus's and Cressida's hopes and fears, Shakespeare sets in motion a triangle of narrative, emotion and temporality. It is a spectacle of which tells something about the play but also about the relation between anticipatory emotion and temporality. The sense of multiple literary futures is shaped by Shakespeare's Chaucer, and in particular by Troilus and Criseyde. The book argues that the play's attempted violence upon a prototypical form of historical time is in part an attack on the literary narratives. Criseyde's beauty is described many times. The characters' predilection for sententiousness unfolds gradually. Through Criseyde, Chaucer's Poet displaces authorial humility as arrogance. The Troilus and Criseyde/Cressida saga begins with Boccaccio, who isolates and expands the love affair between Troiolo and Criseida to vent his sexual frustration. The poem appears to be linking an awareness of history and its continuing influence and impact on the present to hermeneutical acts conspicuously gendered female. The main late medieval Troy tradition does two things: it represents ferocious military combat, and also practises ferocious literary combat against other, competing traditions of Troy.
confiscations at each act of rebellion, and region by region the island
was pacified by new fortifications. Irish religious disaffection followed
a growing Calvinist influence in the established Church of England,
but the actual breakdown of loyalty was caused by new English arrivals
acquiring administrative posts, opportunists who disregarded traditional
allegiances and Celtic laws. Fortifications provided a military solution
to a political problem. Military technology evolved prodigiously in the
sixteenth century, and the new regime in Dublin benefitted from advances
luxurious and feeble. The military man gains the civil power in
proportion as the civilian loses the military virtues. And as it was in ancient
Rome so it is in contemporary Europe. There never was a time when nations
were more militarist. There never was a time when men were less brave.
All ages and all epics have sung of arms and the man; but we have effected
simultaneously the deterioration of the man and the fantastic perfection of
the arms. Militarism demonstrated the decadence of Rome, and it demonstrates the decadence of Prussia.
And unconsciously, Mr Kipling has
mimetic complicity between an age’s political
occupations and its intellectual preoccupations seems determined to
validate itself. In any case, that presumption, by and large, has
governed recent approaches to early modern theatrical warfare: an
impressive array of contemporary cultural documents on military subjects
has been mustered, then pressed into the service of textual explication.
Replaying history: reading Close Combat
Close Combat [inc. Close Combat (1996), Close Combat II: A
Bridge Too Far (1997), Close Combat III: The Russian Front (1998),
Close Combat IV: The Battle of the Bulge (1999), Close Combat:
Invasion Normandy (2000)]. Real-time strategy/wargame. As the
titles indicate, various episodes are set in different military
campaigns during the Second World War. The game is split
between the strategic management of large formations on
campaign maps and the tactical control (in ‘real-time’) of small
numbers of troops on battlefield
For’ was most probably inspired by
Deliciae Naturae, or ‘The Delights of Nature’, the famous oration delivered by
Linnaeus when his office as Rector at the University of Uppsala came to an end
in December 1772.3 Here, as in the poem, botanical taxonomy is rendered homologous with a hierarchical model of human society and all its social classes
and military ranks: grass is likened to downtrodden peasantry, the herbs to nobility in gaudy dress and the fungi or mushrooms to a disorderly mob.
Botany, sexuality and women’s writing 1760–1830
12 John Russell and John
Anthills of the Savannah
Anthills of the Savannah is structured around a quartet of
characters, members of the elite in the postcolonial West African
state of Kangan. Sam, Kangan’s Head of State, has come to
power in an army coup that overthrew a corrupt and ineffectual civilian regime some time before the opening of the novel.
He is a product of a colonial school, Lord Lugard College, and
Sandhurst, the most prestigious military training academy in
England. Chris Oriko, a friend of Sam’s since their boyhood at
college, is a senior journalist whose fortunes