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Troilus and Criseyde and Troilus and Cressida

For the last three decades or so, literary studies, especially those dealing with premodern texts, have been dominated by the New Historicist paradigm. This book is a collection of essays explores medieval and early modern Troilus-texts from Chaucer to Shakespeare. The contributions show how medieval and early modern fictions of Troy use love and other emotions as a means of approaching the problem of tradition. The book argues that by emphasizing Troilus's and Cressida's hopes and fears, Shakespeare sets in motion a triangle of narrative, emotion and temporality. It is a spectacle of which tells something about the play but also about the relation between anticipatory emotion and temporality. The sense of multiple literary futures is shaped by Shakespeare's Chaucer, and in particular by Troilus and Criseyde. The book argues that the play's attempted violence upon a prototypical form of historical time is in part an attack on the literary narratives. Criseyde's beauty is described many times. The characters' predilection for sententiousness unfolds gradually. Through Criseyde, Chaucer's Poet displaces authorial humility as arrogance. The Troilus and Criseyde/Cressida saga begins with Boccaccio, who isolates and expands the love affair between Troiolo and Criseida to vent his sexual frustration. The poem appears to be linking an awareness of history and its continuing influence and impact on the present to hermeneutical acts conspicuously gendered female. The main late medieval Troy tradition does two things: it represents ferocious military combat, and also practises ferocious literary combat against other, competing traditions of Troy.

Jean R. Brink

leaders conclude that battles will be determined by their own single combat; avowed enemies become sworn brothers because they each kept their word. 2 Shuger's formulation explains why descriptions of events in Ireland in Henry Sidney's Memoirs sometimes read like passages out of Malory's Knights of King Arthur. The early modern chivalric code, largely an honour code, bound both Irish and English military servitors, like ‘Black

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
Spenser, Sidney, and the early modern chivalric code
Jean R. Brink

was pockmarked from a childhood illness and paints him as ‘hot-tempered’ and ‘arrogant’ (xii). Alan Stewart tells us that Sidney's reputation as ‘England's hero, its shepherd-knight, its greatest courtier poet’ was dreamed up by Leicester, ‘a master-propagandist’, who was interested in excusing his own shortcomings as a military commander (7). 24 According to Stewart, Elizabeth ‘belittled’ Sidney, forcing

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
The Earl of Essex, Sir Philip Sidney and surviving Elizabeth’s court
Richard James Wood

diplomatic ability to survive in the already over-heated atmosphere of the late Elizabethan court. In Hammer’s entry in the 2004 edition of the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography , he outlines a ‘more complex’, ‘modern historiographical image of Essex’ in which research demonstrates that Essex developed a coherent military strategy for the war against Spain and examined the broader cultural context which helped to shape his career. More recent works have illuminated his role in intelligence gathering and his patronage of university scholars, whose research

in Sidney's Arcadia and the conflicts of virtue
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Jean R. Brink

. The Shepheardes Calender not only treats Edmund Grindal sympathetically, but also attacks John Aylmer (Elmer, Elmore as Morrill), then Bishop of London. We know that Spenser's next patron was Arthur, Lord Grey of Wilton, a military man who had previously acted as the patron of George Gascoigne, but we do not know when their relationship began. In this study of the early Spenser, the text of Familiar Letters is used to suggest that

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
Conflicted conflicts in Astrophil and Stella and the New Arcadia
Richard James Wood

his wish ‘to turn tiltyard fictions into military reality’. 2 The darkening situation in the Low Countries, where Catholic Spain was inflicting heavy defeats on Protestant provinces, was of acute concern to Sidney. Eventually, in 1585, his wish for military service was granted. He was appointed Governor of Flushing as part of Elizabeth’s belated intervention in the Netherlands. Joining an expedition under the command of his uncle, Robert Dudley, Earl of Leicester, Sidney was charged with holding the strategically important port of Flushing in the face of Spanish

in Sidney's Arcadia and the conflicts of virtue
The afterlives of Ophelia in Japanese pop culture
Yukari Yoshihara

– Othello was set in Taiwan under Japanese colonisation, The Merchant of Venice with the Shylock figure as an indigenous man in Hokkaido and Hamlet was set in contemporary Japan. In contrast with the earlier adaptations of Hamlet as a ghost story in feudal Japan mentioned earlier, in Kawakami's Hamlet the ghost of King Hamlet is not a feudal samurai warlord, but a modern, westernized military commander with some references to Japan's military expansion in Asia at that time (for example, the Hamlet figure is exiled to Siberia). The combination of the supernatural

in Shakespeare and the supernatural
Sir Philip Sidney’s legacy of anti-factionalism
Richard James Wood

circle in the 1590s was of a more pessimistic strain than that often associated with the reading of Tacitus before the disappointments, as Greville would have seen them, of the 1580s. Greville and other like-minded forward Protestants, including Sidney, while he was still alive, were most disappointed with Elizabeth’s failure to sanction active military opposition to the forces of Catholicism on the Continent, particularly in the Low Countries. Paradoxically, the Earl of Leicester’s belated and brief attempt to prosecute this very action on Elizabeth’s behalf

in Sidney's Arcadia and the conflicts of virtue
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Jean R. Brink

Lettice, Countess of Essex. In this vexed political context, the Privy Council started considering experienced military commanders as lord deputies of Ireland. In terms of immediate policy, Elizabeth's French alliance offered a means of countering Spanish aggression, enhancing the prestige of England's queen by the alliance, and, perhaps, underlining Leicester's political unimportance. The Spanish ambassador Mendoza, who seems to have been

in The early Spenser, 1554–80
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Richard James Wood

frame his own position as a courtier under James I), and by Robert Devereux, the Earl of Essex, whose political (and military) role was, in many senses, inherited directly from Sidney. While my readings of Sidney’s New Arcadia certainly draw on the ideas and contemporary events that impinged upon Sidney’s world, as an active courtier within the royal court or as an apparently retired courtier beyond its bounds, I also draw on the evidence offered by those who continued, or continued to be influenced by, his work, in order to read back into the literary text itself

in Sidney's Arcadia and the conflicts of virtue