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-century nationalist claims Racism in Ireland 9 that there was such a thing as an Irish race. Nineteenth-century Irish nationalism, along with the nation-building ideologies of other European countries, emphasised the superiority of the Irish and the inferiority of the non-Irish. Irish identity was not just constructed in opposition to Britishness. It was expressed in a sense of national pride in Irish missionary efforts. Assumptions of Irish spiritual superiority combined with colonial ideologies of western superiority within enduring relationships between Ireland, as part of

in Racism and social change in the Republic of Ireland
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The Scottish diaspora since 1707

of 144 Scottish missionaries by the mid-1800s. What is more, these missions employed a significant number of native staff and looked after hundreds of schools, with over 15,000 pupils in total.145 It is in this realm that we can get a glimpse of how Scottish women, too, were partners in empire. This brings us to Mary Slessor, whose important missionary work in West Africa stands out strongly. Slessor is best known for her work at Calabar mission. In his analysis of how national identity has been shaped by empire, MacKenzie confirms that Slessor was ‘one of the

in British and Irish diasporas
Open Access (free)
Association and distinction in politics and religion

collective identity. 60 Whichever it is, the cultivation of the identity of the elite has as a necessary aspect a narrative about the identity of the mass of ordinary people. If the elite bans or persecutes the use of the language of a group or caste or community whom it wishes to assimilate under its control or influence, it uses language as a missionary tool. If the elite, conversely, sets itself apart from the mass by its use of cultivated French, or ecclesiastical Latin, or European English, then language becomes a mark of both superiority and subordination. The

in Cultivating political and public identity
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2 Cultivating identity Taking people seriously; what you see is what you get A can of paint can be sold with the slogan ‘It does just what it says on the tin.’ People are more than paint, but what can be seen and heard matters in social life. I have made the democratic empirical assumption that feathers and flags, clothes and gestures, voice and manners, and all the other expressions and features of identity, are not signs of who people are; they are what people, as social beings, are, and constitute their social identity

in Cultivating political and public identity
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benefits of the welfare state. While both images of Travellers were current throughout the twentieth century, there was a distinct falling away Conclusion 221 of the romantic view and a rise of the delinquency view. The decline of the visible markers of ‘traditional’ Gypsy lifestyle, which had become linked to notions of racial purity, led settled society to assume Travellers no longer had a separate ‘racial’ identity nor any distinctive cultural capital. Popular and state thinking alike failed to keep pace with Travellers, who adapted to motorisation, urbanisation

in A minority and the state

while simultaneously emphasizing the preservation of their cultural, linguistic and ethnic identities. To facilitate this, ‘[c]hurches of departure and of arrival’ are called upon to ‘establish an intense collaboration with one another’ (EMCC, II.67). In the context of migration then, the church recognizes that faith and religious practice are culturally mediated and transnationally negotiated. The Irish Catholic Church is transnationalized by its cross-border structures on the island of Ireland, a national history of (em/im)migration, missionary work and ministry to

in Migrations
Women as citizens

significations occur within minority groups, who see the policing of gender roles as central to maintaining strong identities, as well as among majority groups, who consider gendered roles and viewpoints an obstacle to integration. From both majority and minority perspectives, these discussions centre upon women, while actually erasing women from the debate. Instead, they function only to emphasize difference, or ‘capture the cultural distance (or proximity) between the French [or British] and their postcolonial others’ (Raissiguier, 2010). This chapter will examine the

in Postcolonial minorities in Britain and France

 – without putting aside their Emberá identity – to go to church in an ‘authentic’ Emberá canoe that excites the author’s misplaced ethnographic nostalgia. And finally, in the third example, I  present a mimetic appropriation that represents a reversal of the exoticising gaze: Westerners who put on Emberá clothes to embody indigeneity – reconstituting the authenticity of the imitation and the imitated (Taussig 1993). Paruma fashion, materiality and versatility One summer day in early February 2011 I met a middle-aged married couple from Colón who were spending a few days

in Exoticisation undressed
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Being Irish in nineteenth-century Scotland and Canada

leading role in having the ecclesiastical jurisdiction of Ontario transferred from Quebec to the newly created Bishopric of Kingston. Serving as Kingston’s first Bishop from 1826 until his death in 1840, MacDonnel oversaw 159 M&H 08_Tonra 01 08/04/2014 07:20 Page 160 160 Women and Irish diaspora identities the break from Quebec’s ecclesiastical authority. He had been inspired by Edmund Burke, an early Irish Catholic missionary in Ontario who had been convinced of the necessity of securing ecclesiastical independence for the English-speaking Catholics of Nova Scotia

in Women and Irish diaspora identities
Open Access (free)
Ontologies of connection, reconstruction of memory

Pacific. The Pacific’s absence from contemporary civilisational analysis continues in a scenario in which critical scholarship on the Pacific has grown.Through exchanges between historians, artists, novelists, sociologists, activists and archaeologists from the region and counterparts from elsewhere (known as ‘outlanders’), debates about post-​colonial conditions have produced new insights, helped to foster cultural memory and islander identities and languages, generated different methods and shaped new practices (Borofsky, 2000). Furthermore, the expansion of knowledge

in Debating civilisations